Chapter 31 The Kingdom Fungi
Card Set Information
Chapter 31 The Kingdom Fungi
How old are honey mushrooms and how many acres do they cover?
2000 years old
2200 acres of Oregon soil
Fungi are ___
Where do Fungi live?
What is substrate?
soil, rotting logs, pieces of bread, living tissue, etc
Why are fungi closely related to animals?
both us absorptive nutrition
both store surplus food as the carbohydrate glycogen
To secrete enzymes and absorb resulting small organic molecules
Fungi arose from a _____ ancestor
Fungi cell walls are composed of:
A polysaccharide containing nitrogen.
Chitin is also found in ___
exoskeleton of arthropods
The body of the fungus
each of the microscopic branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus
Fungal mycelia with the shape of roots to transport water and nutrients
Enzymes break down ____
What allows Mycelia to grow quickly?
Narrow dimensions and extensive branching provides high surface area for absorption
Water produces force for tip extension
Osmosis is important in Mycelia growth because:
Entry of water produces force for tip extension
Structure in higher fungi that acts as organizing center for hyphal growth and morphogenesis
Cross walls dividing cells mycelium
In Septate fungi, each cell has ___ nuclei
1 or 2
a type of fungi that is not partitioned into smaller cells
In Aseptate Fungi, the nuclei divides without ______
What distinguishes fungal nuclear division from plants and animals
this spindle forms inside nucleus and nuclear envelope and does not break down
Natural Mycelium is ___ in liquid cultre, and ___ on agar
Sexual reproduction in Fungi involves:
mating of gametes
Most sexual organisms have ___ followed by ____
fusion of gametes' cytoplasm
fusion of gametes' nuclei
In Fungi, after plasmogamy, nuclei remain separate for ___
sometimes a long time
Gamete nuclei divide at each cell division producing ____ or _____
__ may produce a fleshy fruiting body.
All cells of the fruiting body are ___
When mature, the 2 nuclei in cells will __ and produce ____. (only diploid stage) Then undergo ___ to produce haploid spores.
internal spore production
dark green mass on receptaculum producing fetid odor
spore dispersal via insects
Substances that are produced in the fruiting bodies to deter consumption
toxins and hallucinogenics
used to induce abortions and stop maternal bleeding after child birth and can be used to synthesize LSD
Ergot of Rye
"St. Elmo's Fire"
causes liver and kidney failure if eaten
Fungi reproduce primarily or exclusively ___
Fungi reproduce asexually by generating chains of spores at the tips of ____
when a spore is produced at the tip of a hyphae
Some fungi are predators and trap tiny soil ___
___ species of Fungi cause serious crop diseases
Fungi cause human disease such as __ (athlete's fot or ringworm), and ___ (pneumonia in AIDS)
associations that benefit both partners
Three types of mutualistic fungi:
has an association b/w the hyphae of certain fungi and the roots of most seed plants
More than __% of plants have Mycorhizzae because the plants receive:
an increased supply of water and mineral nutrients
Two most common types of mycorrhizzae are:
coats root surface and grows b/w cells of roots
grows into root cell walls and plasma membranes
form highly branched structures with high surface area
Fungi that live within the tissues of various types of plants
Endophytes obtain ___ from plants, and in return, contribute ___ and ___ to the plants that acts as a pesticide
organic food molecules
Plants with ___ often grow better than plants of the same species without them
Lichen did not all descend from a common ancestor
so they are not monophyletic
3 major forms of Lichen:
crustose, foliose, and fruticose
Lichens reproduce ___. 1/3 can reproduce ___.
Lichen reproduce asexually using ___ and produce ___
Fungi convert inexpensive organic compounds into:
citric acid, glycerol, and antibiotics
Fungi used for bread, beer, and wine
5 Fungal Phyla:
Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, AM Fungi, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota
live mostly in water or moist soil. Associated with decline of frog population.
Named for zygospore produced sexually. It undergoes meiosis to produce ____. Most are ___ in the soil, but some are parasites. Not monophyletic.
Dung Canon grows n herbivore dung. Sporangium launches 2m at 45 in firt mm. Parasitic ___ hitch rides.
Ability of early plants to live on land may have depended on help from this fingal Phyla
Have a unique sporangia called asci. They produce sexual spores called ascospores and fruiting bodies called ascocarps.
Kills insects and arthropods
keeps insects population in control
Fungus that kills caterpillars
Fungus kills ants. Zombie ants
most recently evolved group of Fungi. Important decomposers and mycorrhizal partners
Basidiomycota were named for basidia that produce sexual spores called ___. Also have fruiting bodies called ___
Blasidiomycota have ____ that help distribute nuclei during cell division
emits light. Ben Franklin suggested using it in the first submarine turtle.
An oxidizing agent that gives off a blue green glow as it reacts with luciferin
Bioluminescence from fungi in decaying wood attracts insect to ___ or to ___
spread its spores