Chapter 31 The Kingdom Fungi

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  1. How old are honey mushrooms and how many acres do they cover?
    • 2000 years old
    • 2200 acres of Oregon┬ásoil
  2. Fungi are ___
  3. Where do Fungi live?
    in substrate
  4. What is substrate?
    soil, rotting logs, pieces of bread, living tissue, etc
  5. Why are fungi closely related to animals?
    • both heterotrophic
    • both us absorptive nutrition
    • both store surplus food as the carbohydrate glycogen
  6. To secrete enzymes and absorb resulting small organic molecules
    absorptive nutrition
  7. Fungi arose from a _____ ancestor
  8. Fungi cell walls are composed of:
  9. A polysaccharide containing nitrogen.
  10. Chitin is also found in ___
    exoskeleton of arthropods
  11. The body of the fungus
  12. each of the microscopic branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus
  13. Fungal mycelia with the shape of roots to transport water and nutrients
  14. Mycelia cords
  15. Enzymes break down ____
  16. What allows Mycelia to grow quickly?
    • Narrow dimensions and extensive branching provides high surface area for absorption
    • Water produces force for tip extension
  17. Osmosis is important in Mycelia growth because:
    Entry of water produces force for tip extension
  18. Structure in higher fungi that acts as organizing center for hyphal growth and morphogenesis
  19. Cross walls dividing cells mycelium
  20. In Septate fungi, each cell has ___ nuclei
    1 or 2
  21. a type of fungi that is not partitioned into smaller cells
    Aseptate fungi
  22. In Aseptate Fungi, the nuclei divides without ______
  23. What distinguishes fungal nuclear division from plants and animals
    Intranuclear spindle
  24. this spindle forms inside nucleus and nuclear envelope and does not break down
    Intranuclear spindle
  25. Natural Mycelium is ___ in liquid cultre, and ___ on agar
    • spherical
    • 2 dimensional
  26. Sexual reproduction in Fungi involves:
    • mating of gametes
    • zygote formation
    • meiosis
  27. Most sexual organisms have ___ followed by ____
    • Plasmogamy
    • Karyogamy
  28. fusion of gametes' cytoplasm
  29. fusion of gametes' nuclei
  30. In Fungi, after plasmogamy, nuclei remain separate for ___
    sometimes a long time
  31. Gamete nuclei divide at each cell division producing ____ or _____
    • dikaryotic mycelium
    • heterokaryon
  32. __ may produce a fleshy fruiting body.
    Heterokaryotic mycelium
  33. All cells of the fruiting body are ___
  34. When mature, the 2 nuclei in cells will __ and produce ____. (only diploid stage) Then undergo ___ to produce haploid spores.
    • fuse
    • zygotes
    • meiosis
  35. internal spore production
  36. dark green mass on receptaculum producing fetid odor
  37. spore dispersal via insects
  38. Substances that are produced in the fruiting bodies to deter consumption
    toxins and hallucinogenics
  39. used to induce abortions and stop maternal bleeding after child birth and can be used to synthesize LSD
    • Ergot of Rye
    • "St. Elmo's Fire"
    • Ergotism
  40. "magic mushrooms"
  41. causes liver and kidney failure if eaten
  42. Fungi reproduce primarily or exclusively ___
  43. Fungi reproduce asexually by generating chains of spores at the tips of ____
  44. when a spore is produced at the tip of a hyphae
  45. Some fungi are predators and trap tiny soil ___
  46. ___ species of Fungi cause serious crop diseases
  47. Fungi cause human disease such as __ (athlete's fot or ringworm), and ___ (pneumonia in AIDS)
    • dermatophytes
    • Pneomocystis
  48. associations that benefit both partners
    mutualistic fungi
  49. Three types of mutualistic fungi:
    • Mycorhizzal Fungi
    • Endophytes
    • Lichens
  50. has an association b/w the hyphae of certain fungi and the roots of most seed plants
    mycorhizzal fungi
  51. More than __% of plants have Mycorhizzae because the plants receive:
    • 80
    • an increased supply of water and mineral nutrients
  52. Two most common types of mycorrhizzae are:
    • ectomycorrhizae
    • endomycorrhizae
  53. coats root surface and grows b/w cells of roots
  54. grows into root cell walls and plasma membranes
  55. form highly branched structures with high surface area
    arbuscular mycorrhizae
  56. Fungi that live within the tissues of various types of plants
    Fungal Endophytes
  57. Endophytes obtain ___ from plants, and in return, contribute ___ and ___ to the plants that acts as a pesticide
    • organic food molecules
    • toxins
    • antibiotics
  58. Plants with ___ often grow better than plants of the same species without them
  59. Lichen did not all descend from a common ancestor
    so they are not monophyletic
  60. 3 major forms of Lichen:
    crustose, foliose, and fruticose
  61. Lichens reproduce ___. 1/3 can reproduce ___.
    • sexually
    • asexually
  62. Lichen reproduce asexually using ___ and produce ___
    • soredia
    • clones
  63. Fungi convert inexpensive organic compounds into:
    citric acid, glycerol, and antibiotics
  64. Fungi used for bread, beer, and wine
  65. 5 Fungal Phyla:
    Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, AM Fungi, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota
  66. live mostly in water or moist soil. Associated with decline of frog population.
  67. Named for zygospore produced sexually. It undergoes meiosis to produce ____. Most are ___ in the soil, but some are parasites. Not monophyletic.
    • Zygomycota
    • haploid spores
    • saprobes
  68. Dung Canon grows n herbivore dung. Sporangium launches 2m at 45 in firt mm. Parasitic ___ hitch rides.
    • Pilobolus crystallinus
    • nematodes (Dictyocaulus)
  69. AM Fungi
    Arbuscular Fungi
  70. Ability of early plants to live on land may have depended on help from this fingal Phyla
    AM Fungi
  71. Have a unique sporangia called asci. They produce sexual spores called ascospores and fruiting bodies called ascocarps.
    Ascomycota Fungi
  72. Kills insects and arthropods
  73. keeps insects population in control
  74. Fungus that kills caterpillars
    Cordyceps sinensis
  75. Fungus kills ants. Zombie ants
    Ophiocordyceps unilateralis
  76. most recently evolved group of Fungi. Important decomposers and mycorrhizal partners
  77. Basidiomycota were named for basidia that produce sexual spores called ___. Also have fruiting bodies called ___
    • basidiospores
    • blasidiocarps
  78. Blasidiomycota have ____ that help distribute nuclei during cell division
    clamp connections
  79. emits light. Ben Franklin suggested using it in the first submarine turtle.
    Fox Fire
  80. An oxidizing agent that gives off a blue green glow as it reacts with luciferin
  81. Bioluminescence from fungi in decaying wood attracts insect to ___ or to ___
    • spread its spores
    • warn animals
Card Set:
Chapter 31 The Kingdom Fungi
2014-03-09 02:33:13

Bio 111
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