psych chap 1

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psych chap 1
2014-03-08 21:23:48

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  1. Experiment
    • -looks for a cause-effect relationship
    • -variables/condition are manipulated
    • -hypothesis formed
    • -IV and DV present 
    • -has two groups (experimental and control)
  2. Independent Variable
    • -the cause
    • -given to the experimental group
    • -is changed or manipulated to assess effects
  3. Dependent Variable
    • -the effect
    • -expected to show a change in response to the IV
  4. Individual participant differences
    The differences in personal characteristics and experiences of the individual participants
  5. Non-standardised instructions and procedures
    When the research procedures or instructions are non-standardised it means that they are not uniform, or the same, for all participants
  6. Order effects
    • Occur when performance is influenced by the specific order in which the conditions, treatments or tasks are presented rather than the IV
    • - Practice effects: practice will improve performance, boredom/fatigue will decrease performance
    • - Carry-over effects: feelings or other influences (e.g. alcohol) may carry over to the next condition
  7. Experimenter effect
    • Occurs when a change in the participant's response is cue to the actions, biases, or expectations of the experimenter rather than to the experimental condition/IV
    • - Experimenter expectancy: cues provided by the researcher about the responses participants should give in the experiment (mannerisms, facial expressions, tone)
    • - Experimenter bias: unintentionally make judgement errors when collecting data because of what they expect to see
  8. Placebo effect
    Occurs when there is a change in the responses of participants due to their belief that they are receiving some kind of experimental treatment and they respond in accordance with that belief rather than to the effects of the IV
  9. Counterbalancing
    Systematically changing the order of treatments or tasks for participants in a balanced way to counter the unwanted effects on performance of any one order

    half the sample does condition A then condition B while the other half does condition B then condition A
  10. Single-blind procedure
    Where the participants dont know if they are in the experimental or control group
  11. Double-blind procedure
    • Where neither the participants nor the experimenter knows whether the participants are in the experimental or the control group 
    • Use a research assistant to achieve this
  12. Placebo
    Given a fake treatment so everyone forms the same expectations
  13. Standardised instructions and procedures
    Instructions given to all participants for each condition have been predetermined and are identical (usually read from a pre-prepared script)
  14. Convenience sampling
    • Participants are selected based on the researcher's accessibility to them
    • Advantage: quick and easy
    • Disadvantage: bias sample
  15. Random sampling
    • Every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
    • Advantage: quick, inexpensive, likely to be representative as everyone has an equal chance of selection
    • Disadvantage: still a chance of not being representative
  16. Stratified sampling
    • Population is divided into strata based of relevant characteristics then selected from each strata in the same proportions that occur in the population
    • Advantage: highly representative
    • Disadvantage: time consuming, info about characteristics must be obtained
  17. Random stratified sampling
    • Population is divided into strata based on relevant characteristics then randomly selected from each strata in the same proportions that occur in the population
    • Advantage: highly representative 
    • Disadvantage: time consuming, info about characteristics must be obtained
  18. Random allocation
    • Involves randomly assigning the sample into either the experimental group of control group
    • Advantage: more likely to spread participant characteristics across the two groups
  19. Control group vs Experimental group
    • Control group: provides a standard of comparison
    • Experimental group: exposed to the experimental condition/ IV
  20. Descriptive statistics
    Used to analyse, organise and summarise the results
  21. Mean
    • Average score in a data set
    • Add together all the scores then divide by the total number of scores
    • Advantage: if scores are closely clustered around a central score the mean is a fairly accurate indicator of the typical score
    • Disadvantage: can be influenced by outliers
  22. Median
    • Middle number in a data set
    • Arrange all the scores from smallest to largest and select the middle number. If there is an even number of scores the mean to the two middle numbers is the median
    • Advantage: not influenced by outliers
    • Disadvantage: time consuming and impractical for a larger amount of data
  23. Mode
    • Most commonly occurring number 
    • Count the number that appears the most
    • Disadvantage: unreliable measure for small samples, single scores can greatly influence the mode
  24. Inferential statistics
    • Used to make judgments about what the data actually means
    • Allows the experimenter to draw conclusions
  25. Statistical significance
    Refers to the significance of the difference between two scores; whether we can attribute the difference in the results to the IV or to chance
  26. P-value chant
    The probability that the results are due to chance, and not the effects of the IV, is less than 5% or 5 times in 100 repetitions of the study
  27. Conclusions
    • A judgment or decision about what the research results mean. This involves stating whether the hypothesis is supported or rejected based on the results. 
    • Results must be statistically significant
    • EV/CV's must be controlled for
  28. Generalisations
    • When the research findings are applied to the wider population of research interest
    • Results must be statistically significant
    • Sample must be representative
    • Sampling procedure must be appropriate
    • Ev/CV's must be controlled for
  29. Informed consent
    Individuals must be fully aware of what their participation entails and must agree to all aspects by giving written consent
  30. Withdrawal rights
    Participants are free to pull out at any time, even after the study has concluded. No reason is need and individuals are free to take results out too.
  31. Confidentiality
    Participants have a right to privacy, so any details of their involvement on a study cannot be revealed in a manner that enables them to be identified unless their written consent is obtained
  32. Debriefing
    Involves clarifying each participant's understanding of the research study after it has been conducted
  33. Deception
    Only used when knowledge of the true nature of the study will influence the behaviour and response of the participants
  34. Voluntary participation
    The researcher must try to ensure that participants voluntarily consent to be involved in a study through written consent. Participants must not be pressured to take part, nor experience negative consequences if they do not participate
  35. Do no harm
    Participants must not experience any physical or psychological harm at any point in the study
  36. Professional conduct
    Researchers are expected to conduct themselves in a professional manner at all times and must respect and ensure the security of participants' human rights