unit one.txt

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unit one.txt
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2010-07-13 00:43:40
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unit one.
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  1. -1971 by Intel.
    -clock speed of 1 MHz.
    -first 4-bit microprocessor.
    4004
  2. -first attempt with GUI.
    -very expensive.
    Lisa
  3. -invented by Xerox PARC.
    -GUI operating system.
    Alto
  4. -Added a keyboard.
    -didn't have a color display.
    -used z80 technology.
    Apple II
  5. -Invented by Steve Wozniak & Steve Jobs.
    -1976.
    Apple I
  6. -Founded by Steve Wozniak & Steve Jobs.
    -Organized in 1976.
    Apple
  7. IBM standards
    (1987-Present)
    Software set by Microsoft.
    • -MS-DOS.
    • -Windows 3.xx
    • -Windows 95, 98, Me.
    • -Windows NT, 2000, XP, Vista.
  8. IBM standards
    (1987-Present)
    Hardware by Intel.
    • -microprocessor.
    • -chipset.
    • -motherboard.
  9. IBM Standards
    (1981-1987)
    • -microprocessor used.
    • -bus structure.
    • -architecture.
    • -video.
    • -disk drives.
  10. -1988.
    -doesn't support hardware & software on IBM PC.
    -microchannel replaces ISA bus.
    -VGA graphic standards.
    -New O/S called OS/2 is DOS compatible.
    -allows multitasking.
    IBM PS/2
  11. -1984.
    -based on Intel's 80286 microprocessor.
    -6 MHz.
    -MS-DOS 3.0
    IBM AT
  12. -1983.
    -10 MB hard drive.
    -MS-DOS 2.0
    -16-bit ISA bus.
    -directory structure.
    IBM XT
  13. -Intel microprocessors.
    -MS-DOS.
    -Architecture.
    Standardization
  14. -1981.
    -First PC.
    -used the Intel 8088 microprocessor.
    -operated at 4.77 MHz.
    -No hard drive.
    -one or two floppy disks.
    -used MS-DOS 1.0
    -introduced 8-bit ISA bus.
    The IBM PC
  15. Before IBM PC, PC's used
    • -variety of microprocessors.
    • -many different architectures.
    • -variety of operating systems.
  16. -1975.
    -by MITS in New Mexico.
    -based on 8080 microprocessor.
    -sold at $395.
    Altair
  17. Before PC's
    • -very large.
    • -very expensive.
    • -rare.
  18. -invented by British engineers.
    -used to breaking the German code system during WWII.
    Colossus I
  19. -invented by John W. Mauchly at University of Penn.
    -first large-scale digital electronic computer.
    -able to solve mammoth mathematical missile trajectories.
    • ENIAC
    • (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
  20. -first electronic digital computer.
    -invented in Iowa State University b/w 1939 & 1942.
    -by John Atanasoff.
    -it had binary arithmetic, parallel processing, regenerative memory, separate memory, & computer functions.
    -weighed 750 lbs & had 3000 bytes of memory.
    -john w. mauchly finished it.
    • ABC
    • (Atanasoff-Berry Computer)
  21. -invented by Dr. Herman Hollerith in 1889.
    -designed for data processing.
    -first electrically-driven computer.
    -used punch cards.
    The Hollerith Machine
  22. -calculator.
    -500 B.C. by Chinese.
    -used for simple math.
    -first computer.
    -other names- counting frame & calculating board.
    Abacus
  23. -first mechanical computer.
    -by Charles Babbage b/w 1822 & 1871.
    - designed to receive instructions from punched cards, make calculations with the aid of a memory bank, & print out solutions to math problems.
    -never finished.
    The Analytical Engine
  24. -Samuel F.B. Morse
    -a series of short & long tones, or dots & dashes.
    Telegraph
  25. -many pieces of info. are sent at a time.
    -(multiple wires)
    -faster.
    ---------------
    ---------------
    Parallel
  26. -Just one piece of info. sent at a time.
    -(telegraph)
    -----------------
    Serial
  27. -smallest unit of into that is recognized by a computer.
    -either on or off.
    -the method used for transmitting info on a single telegraph system.
    -single digit.
    bits
  28. -group of eight bits.
    -standard unit of measuring memory in a microcomputer.
    -8-bits
    bytes
  29. -1982 by Intel.
    -16-bit processor.
    80286
  30. -1986 by Intel.
    -32-bit processor.
    -multitasking.
    80386
  31. -1989 by Intel.
    -386 & 387 coprocesssor.
    -internal cache controller.
    80486
  32. -1992.
    -offered 2.5x's performance of 486.
    Intel 1586 (Pentium)
  33. -1995 by Microsoft.
    -32-bit architecture.
    Windows 95
  34. -(universal serial bus)
    -1998
    USB
  35. -2001
    -uses Windows product activation.
    Windows XP
  36. -vary over a continuous range.
    Analog Signals
  37. -vary between two fixed levels.
    -(on, off)
    Digital Signals
  38. -0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
    -"based 10"
    decimals numbers
  39. -4 bits.
    -(half of a byte)
    Nibble
  40. -16-bits
    word
  41. 0 1
    off on
    *divide by 2.
    Binary
  42. -1972
    -first 8-bit microprocessor.
    8008
  43. -1975
    -operating system for 8080.
    -combination of software & hardware.
    CP/M
  44. -0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F
    -"base 16"
    hexadecimal
  45. 330H
    example of hex
  46. 256
    example of decimal
  47. 1010
    example of binary
  48. a special set of codes that have become the basis of most computer communication.
    ASCII
  49. -Brain of the computer.
    -does all the number crunching and data management.
    CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  50. -also known as the system board.
    -contains all the following items in this table.
    Motherboard
  51. A group of computer chips or ICs (integrated circuits), that when working in harmony, manage and control the computer system.
    Chipset
  52. -A group of parallel conductors (wires) on the motherboard.
    -"wires of the body."
    Data bus
  53. A group of parallel conductors (circuit boards) on the motherboard, used by the CPU to "address" memory locations.
    Address bus

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