Biopsychology

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Author:
avarricc
ID:
265626
Filename:
Biopsychology
Updated:
2014-03-10 10:41:26
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Chapter Seven
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Description:
The five senses
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  1. What is sound ?
    • Vibrating objects vibrate air molecules which then stimulate auditory system
    • Physical Stimuli
  2. What is Amplitude ?
    Loudness
  3. What is Frequency ?
    Pitch
  4. What is Complexity ?
    Timbre
  5. What is Audition ?
    • Sound wave -> eardrum -> Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) -> oval window
    • Vibration of the oval window sets in motion the fluid of the cochlea
  6. What is the organ of Corti ?
    • The cochlea's internal membrane
    • The auditory receptor organ


  7. Anatomy of the Ear
  8. What is the Organ of Corti composed of?
    • Basilar Membrane
    • Tectorial Membrane
    • Stimulation of hair cells triggers action potentials in the auditory nerve (branch of CN VIII - Vestibular - Cochlear)
  9. What is the Basilar Membrane ?
    Auditory receptros, hair cells, are mounted here
  10. What is the Tectorial Membrane ?
    Rests on the hair cells
  11. What is Tonotopic ?
    • Organization of the organ of corti
    • Different frequencies produce maximal stimulation of hair cells at different points along the basilar membrane
  12. What is the Auditory Pathway ?
    Auditory Nerve -> Cochlear Nuclei -> Inferior Colliculus -> Medial Geniculate Nucleus (Thalamus) -> Primary Auditory Cortex
  13. What is the Auditory Cortex ?
    • Primary auditory cortex = lateral fissure; temporal lobe
    • Tonotopic Organization to simple tones
    • Secondary areas respond best to complex tones
  14. What is Conduction Deafness ?
    • Mechanical systems (Hearing Aid)
    • Ex. Punctured eardrum, loss of function of bones of middle ear
  15. What is Nerve Deafness ?
    • Damaged receptros (Can not heal)
    • Ex. Exposure to loud sounds can damage hair cells
  16. What are some age related Hearing loss ?
    • Usually deficit in hearing high frequencies
    • Elderly people often problems with 's' 'f' & 't'
  17. What is Olfaction ?
    • Smell
    • Detects airborne chemicals
  18. What is Gustation ?
    • Taste
    • Responds to chemicals in the mouth
  19. What is Flavor ?
    Food acts on both Olfaction & Gustation to produce flavor
  20. What is ordorant ?
    Shape of the molecule determines its smell
  21. What is the Olfactory nerve ?
    Information is carried via CN I
  22. What is the track of the Olfactory System ?
    Olfactory track -> Piriform Cortext (Primary olfactory cortex & amygdala) -> BOTH Limbic system & Orbitofrontal cortex (conscious perception of odors)
  23. What is the Cribriform Plate ?
    When we get hit in the head this cuts olfactory receptors
  24. What are Taste Buds ?
    • Occur in clusters of 50
    • Located on Papillea (big bumps on tongue)
  25. What are 5 primary tastes each with their own receptor ?
    • Sweet
    • Sour
    • Salty
    • Bitter
    • Umami (meat/savory)
  26. What taste don't have receptors ?
    • Salty
    • Sour
  27. How is the info carried ?
    • Cranial Nerves:
    • VII - Facial
    • IX - Glossopharygeal
    • X - Vagus
  28. What is the Gustatory Pathway ?
    Gustatory receptors -> Solitary Nucleus -> Ventral Posterior Nucleus (Thalamus) -> Primary Gustatory Cortex ( near face region of postcentral gyrus)
  29. What is Ansomia ?
    • Inability to smell
    • Most common cause is a blow to the head that damages olfactory nerves
  30. What is Ageusia ?
    • Inability to taste
    • Rare due to multiple pathways carrying taste information

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