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What is sound ?
- Vibrating objects vibrate air molecules which then stimulate auditory system
- Physical Stimuli
What is Amplitude ?
What is Frequency ?
What is Complexity ?
What is Audition ?
- Sound wave -> eardrum -> Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) -> oval window
- Vibration of the oval window sets in motion the fluid of the cochlea
What is the organ of Corti ?
- The cochlea's internal membrane
- The auditory receptor organ
Anatomy of the Ear
What is the Organ of Corti composed of?
- Basilar Membrane
- Tectorial Membrane
- Stimulation of hair cells triggers action potentials in the auditory nerve (branch of CN VIII - Vestibular - Cochlear)
What is the Basilar Membrane ?
Auditory receptros, hair cells, are mounted here
What is the Tectorial Membrane ?
Rests on the hair cells
What is Tonotopic ?
- Organization of the organ of corti
- Different frequencies produce maximal stimulation of hair cells at different points along the basilar membrane
What is the Auditory Pathway ?
Auditory Nerve -> Cochlear Nuclei -> Inferior Colliculus -> Medial Geniculate Nucleus (Thalamus) -> Primary Auditory Cortex
What is the Auditory Cortex ?
- Primary auditory cortex = lateral fissure; temporal lobe
- Tonotopic Organization to simple tones
- Secondary areas respond best to complex tones
What is Conduction Deafness ?
- Mechanical systems (Hearing Aid)
- Ex. Punctured eardrum, loss of function of bones of middle ear
What is Nerve Deafness ?
- Damaged receptros (Can not heal)
- Ex. Exposure to loud sounds can damage hair cells
What are some age related Hearing loss ?
- Usually deficit in hearing high frequencies
- Elderly people often problems with 's' 'f' & 't'
What is Olfaction ?
- Detects airborne chemicals
What is Gustation ?
- Responds to chemicals in the mouth
What is Flavor ?
Food acts on both Olfaction & Gustation to produce flavor
What is ordorant ?
Shape of the molecule determines its smell
What is the Olfactory nerve ?
Information is carried via CN I
What is the track of the Olfactory System ?
Olfactory track -> Piriform Cortext (Primary olfactory cortex & amygdala) -> BOTH Limbic system & Orbitofrontal cortex (conscious perception of odors)
What is the Cribriform Plate ?
When we get hit in the head this cuts olfactory receptors
What are Taste Buds ?
- Occur in clusters of 50
- Located on Papillea (big bumps on tongue)
What are 5 primary tastes each with their own receptor ?
- Umami (meat/savory)
What taste don't have receptors ?
How is the info carried ?
- Cranial Nerves:
- VII - Facial
- IX - Glossopharygeal
- X - Vagus
What is the Gustatory Pathway ?
Gustatory receptors -> Solitary Nucleus -> Ventral Posterior Nucleus (Thalamus) -> Primary Gustatory Cortex ( near face region of postcentral gyrus)
What is Ansomia ?
- Inability to smell
- Most common cause is a blow to the head that damages olfactory nerves
What is Ageusia ?
- Inability to taste
- Rare due to multiple pathways carrying taste information