Chemistry Midterm Study Guide

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Chemistry Midterm Study Guide
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Chemistry Midterm Study Guide
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  1. Element
    An element is a pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made up of one type of atom.
  2. Ion
    Is an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
  3. Isotope
    Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses. The isotopes of an element have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons.
  4. Atom
    An element is a pure substance that can not be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made up of one type of atom.
  5. Compound
    Compounds are made from two or more elements in fixed proportions. Example; H2O.
  6. Molecule
    The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of the substance.
  7. Ionic Bond
    When electrons are transfered between elements. Formed by a metal (which loses e- and becomes a cation) and a nonmetal (which gains e- and becomes a anion). COMPOUNDS are formed.
  8. Covalent Bond
    Share electrons to form MOLECULES. Formed by two nonmetals bonding together.
  9. Metal
    Characteristics; shininess, metallic luster, the ability to conduct energy and transfer. Thus metals are good good electrical and heat conductor. Most metals have malleabilty (the ability to be hammered into thin sheets). They are also ductile meaning they can be rolled into wires.
  10. Avogadro's Number
    The number of particles in a mole can be expressed; 6.022 x 1023
  11. Orbital
    A region in an atom where there is high probability of finding electrons.
  12. Law of Conservation of Mass
    States that mass is neither created nor destoryed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes.
  13. Law of Definite Proportions
    States that s chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound.
  14. Law of Multiple Proportions
    States that if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
  15. Wavelength ( λ-Lambda )
    Is the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves. The unit for wavelength is a distance unit.
  16. Photon
    Is a particle of elctomagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy. The energy of a particluar photon depends on the frequency of radiation.
  17. Frequency ( v-nu )
    Is the defined as the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second.
  18. Ground State
    The lowest energy state of an atom is its ground state.
  19. Photons are given off when...
    An excited atom returns back to geound state, it gives off energy it gained in the form of elctromagnetic radiation. We see photons in the form of a color.
  20. Excited State
    A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state is an excited state.
  21. Alkali Metal
    The elements of group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium) are known as the Alkali metals.
  22. Alkaline Earth Metal
    The elements of group 2 of the periodic table (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, barium, and radium) are called the alkaline-earth metals.
  23. Transition Metal
    The d-block elements are metals with typical metallic properties and are often referred to as transition metals.
  24. Ionization Energy
    The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element.Across the Period: Increase. This increase is caused by increasing nuclear charge, the more electrons in your final shell the more energy it tkaes to get electrons.Down the Group: Decrease. The electons get farther away from the nucleus so it is easier to take away their electrons.
  25. Ionization
    Any process that results in the formation of an ion is refered to as an ion.
  26. Cation
    A positive ion is known as a cation.
  27. Nonmetal
    A nonmetal is a poor conductor of heat and electricty. Many nonmetals are gases at room temp. And if theyare solid they tend to be brittle.
  28. Metalloid
    Found between nonmetals and metals. A metalloid is an element that has some of the characteristics of nonmetals. All metalloids are solids at room temp. Metalloids are also known as semiconductors.
  29. Group
    The vertical columns of the peroidic table are called families. They have similar characteristics.
  30. Period
    The horizontal rows of elements in periodic table are called periods.
  31. Chemistry
    Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
  32. Aufbau Principle
    An electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can reieve it.
  33. Pauli's Exculsion Principle
    If two electrons occupy the same orbital then they must have opposite spin states.
  34. Hund's Rule
    Electrons are spread out in singulary occupied orbitals before a second electron is added.
  35. Noble Gas
    The Group 18 elements (helium, neon, argon, kyrpton, xenon, & radon).
  36. Halogen
    The elements of group 17 (flourine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine) are known as halogens. The halogens are the most reactive nonmetals They form salts.
  37. Anion
    A negative ion is known as a anion.
  38. Valence Electrons
    The electrons avaliable to be lost, gained, or shared in formation of chemical compounds are referred to as valence electrons.
  39. Electronegativity
    • Is a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound.
    • Across the Period: Increase. The number of valence electrons increases.
    • Down the Group: Decrease. The number of electron shells increase but not the # of valence electrons so there is less attratcive force between the nucleus and valence e-
  40. Accuracy
    Accuracy refers to the closeness of a measurment to the correct or accepted value.
  41. Precision
    Precison refers to the closness of a set of measurements of the same quanity made in the same way.
  42. Mole
    The mole is the SI unit for an amount of a substance.
  43. Qualitative Data
    Numerical data 25.7g
  44. Quantitave Data
    Non numerical datea such as the fact that the sky is blue.
  45. Molar Mass
    The mass of one mole of a pure substance is called the molar mass of a substance.
  46. Quantum of Energy
    Is the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.
  47. Quantum Number
    Specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals.
  48. Chemical Bond
    Attractive force that holds ions together.
  49. Polar
    An uneven distribution of charge. +/-
  50. Nonpolar
    even distrubution of charge.
  51. Molecular Formula
    A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of molecules.
  52. Octet Rule
    Octet rule refers to how elements generally prefer to form bonds so as to attain an octet configuration, i.e. have 8 electrons in their valence shell.
  53. Scientific Method
    The scientific method is a logical apporach to solving problems that lend themselves to investigation.
  54. SI Base Units
    • Length-Meters
    • Temp.-Kelvin
    • Mass-Kilogram
    • Time-Seconds
    • Mole-Amount of substance
    • Ampere-Electric Current
    • Candela-Luminous Intensisty
  55. SI Derived Units
    Square Meter (Area); Cubic Meter (Volume).They are produced by dividing or multyplying standard units.
  56. Dalton's Atomic Theory
    • 1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
    • 2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties. 
    • 3.Atoms cannont be subdivided, created, or destroyed. 
    • 4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds.
    • 5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, seperated, or rearranged.
  57. Modern Atomic Theory
    Atoms are divisible into even smaller particles (subatomic particles; protons, neutrons, and electrons). Elements can have atoms with different masses.
  58. Thomson
    The cathode ray tube supplied evidence of the existence of electrons, which are negatively charged subatomic particles that have relatively little mass.
  59. Milliken
    Further proved that electrons were negatively charged.
  60. Rutherford
    Rutherford found evidence for the existence of the atomic nucleus by bombarding metal foil witha beam of positively charged particles. (He discovered protons).
  61. Atomic Subparticles
    • Electron / negative
    • Neutron / neutral
    • Protons / positive

    Protons & Neutrons make up the nucleus.
  62. Bohr's Model
    He solved the puzzle of the hydrogen-atom spectrum in 1913. His model linked the atom's electron to photon emission. According to the model, the electron can circle the nuclues in allowed paths or orbits. When the atom is in one of these orbits the atoms has definite energy.
  63. Orbital Notation
  64. Electron Configuration
    The arrangment of electrons in an atom.
  65. Mendeleev
    "Father of the Periodic Table;" 1st person to arrange known elements into an orgainzed table.Arranged them by atomic mass w/exceptions, left gaps for undiscovered elements Sc, Ga, Ge, & He.
  66. Moseley
    After the discovery of subatomic particles, Mooseley rearranged the periodic table by atomic number.
  67. Lewis Dot Structures
  68. VSEPR Theory
    • Used to predict the shape of atoms based on the idea that that pairs of valence electrons surronding an atom repel each other.
    • Valence
    • Shell
    • Electron
    • Pair
    • Repulsion
  69. Intermolecualr Forces: Hydrogen Bond
    H bonded with F,O, or N then it has a very strong dipole-dipole bond.
  70. Intermolecular Forces: Dipole-Dipole
    A force of attraction between two molecules with a net dipole.
  71. Intermolecular Forces: London Dispersion Forces
    All molecules/elements.
  72. Solid
    Matter in the solid state has definte volume and definte shape.
  73. Liquid
    Matter in the liquid state has definte volume but an undefinte shape.
  74. Gas
    Matter in gas state has neither definite shape or volume.
  75. Plasma
    Plasma is an important fourth state of matter. Plasma is a high temperature physical state of matterin which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms. Plasma is found in fluorescent light bulbs.
  76. Ionic Compound
    Is composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the number of positive and negative charges is equal.
  77. Lattice Energy
    The energy released when one mole of an ionic cyrstalline compound is formed from gaseous ions.
  78. Formula Unit
    The simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compounds formula can be established. One formula unit of sodium chloride is NaCl.
  79. Comparison of Ionic and Molecular Compounds
    The forces that hold ionic compounds together have a very strong overall attraction between positive and negative charges. In molecular compounds the covalent bonds are strong ,but not as strong as the formula units in ionic bonding. Ionic compounds generally have higher melting points.
  80. Polyatomic Ion
    A charged group of covalently charged atoms.
  81. Malleabillity
    The ability of a substance to be hammered into thin sheets.
  82. Chemistry
    Is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the process matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes.
  83. Chemical
    A chemcial is any substance that has a definte composition.
  84. Volume
    Volume is the amount of three dimensional space an object takes up.
  85. Mass
    Mass is a measure of the amount of matter.
  86. Matter
    Is defined as anything that has mass and takea up space.
  87. Extensive Properties
    Depend on the amount of matter present. (Volume, Mass, and Amount of Energy in a Substance)
  88. Intensive Properties
    Do not depend on the amount of substance present. (Melting point, Boiling point, density, and ability to conduct electricity)
  89. Solutions
    Homogenous mixtures are called solutions.
  90. System
    A system is a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation.
  91. Model
    Explanation of how phenomena occur and how data and events are related.
  92. Theory
    A broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena.
  93. Quantity
    Something that has magnitude, size, or amount.
  94. Weight
    A measure of gravitational pull on matter.
  95. Emisson
    When the electron falls to a lower energy level, a photon is emitted, and the process is called emission.
  96. Aborsption
    The adding of energy to atoms so they can move bewteen energy levels is called aborsption.
  97. Noble Gases
    Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, and Radon.
  98. Group 1
    Alkali metals
  99. group 2
    Alkaline-earth metals
  100. D block
    Transition Metals
  101. P & S Block
    Main Group Elements

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