CH5 ntd303

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CH5 ntd303
2014-03-09 20:21:14
ntd303 powerpoint notes

for quiz number 2
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  1. most fat found in food and our bodies is in the form of a ?
  2. what is a triglyceride made up of?
    • glycerol head
    • 3 fatty acid tails
  3. provide the most energy per gram
  4. 3 classifications of lipids?
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • sterols
  5. a three carbon alcohol compound
  6. made up of glycerol, fatty acids and a phosphate group
  7. cholesterol and lecithin
  8. ring structures?
  9. all single bonds in carbon backbone with hydrogen and carbon
    saturated fatty acid
  10. contains 1 or more double bonds in carbon backbone
    unsaturated fats
  11. essential fatty acids?
    • omega 3
    • omega 6
  12. methyl group at one end, acid group at another end
    fatty acid
  13. fatty acids are an ____ ___
    organic acid
  14. full of hydrogens (all single bonds)
  15. missing hydrogen (double bonds)
  16. linolenic acid?
    omega 3
  17. linoleic acid?
    omega 6
  18. how to figure out if it is omega 3 or 6?
    count the number of carbons from the methyl end to the double bond
  19. one double bond?
  20. more than 1 double bond?
  21. c-c=c-c
  22. c-c=c=c-c-c
  23. chief form of fat in the diet
  24. fatty acid tails can be ___ or ___
    • saturated
    • unsaturated
  25. unsaturated fats? ex?
    • liquid at room temp
    • oils
  26. saturated fats? ex?
    • solid at room temp
    • butter, animal fats, lard
  27. pulls off water molecules?
    condensation reaction
  28. spoilage of fats (oils)
  29. causes of rancidity
    • oxygen
    • heat
    • light
  30. what do people do to slow down rancidity?
    add antioxidants like vitamin E
  31. characteristics of solid fats and oils
    • determine degree of unsaturation
    • firmness
    • stability
  32. liquid to solid? aka unsat to sat?
  33. unrecognizable by the body
    trans fat
  34. heart healthy fats
    unsaturated fats
  35. T or F sat fat=transfat
  36. phospholipids have both a ____ and ____  parts?
    • hydrophobic
    • hydrophilic
  37. water fearing fatty acid tails?
  38. water loving phosphorous
  39. phospholipids make good?
  40. #1 source saturated fatty acid?
    coconut oil
  41. #1 source monounsaturated fatty acid?
    olive oil
  42. #1 source omega 6?
    safflower oil
  43. #1 source omega 3?
    flaxseed oil
  44. helps vitamins and hormones pass easily through cells
  45. ex of emulsifications?
    • salad dressing
    • mayo
  46. emulsifiers in the food industry
  47. roles of phospholipids?
    • part of cell membrane
    • emulsifiers
  48. phospholipids are soluble in
    fat and water
  49. food sources that contain phospholipds
    • eggs
    • liver
    • soybeans
    • wheat germs
  50. only found in animal products
  51. recommendation for cholesterol?
    less than 300 mg per day
  52. 2 types of sterols?
    • cholesterol
    • plant sterols
  53. lowers bad cholesterol
    plant sterols
  54. roles of sterols?
    • bile acids
    • steroid hormones
    • vitamin D
  55. fats are water fearing, aka
  56. digestive enzymes are water loving, aka
  57. goal of fat digestion?
    dismantle triglycerides
  58. lipid digestion begins in the ____ with ____ ___
    • mouth
    • lingual lipase
  59. ____ begins in the stomach
  60. what does emulsification allow?
    for fat and water to mix
  61. most fat digestion occurs in the ?
    small intestine
  62. enzyme found in stomach that breaks down fat
    gastric lipase
  63. enzyme found in the mouth?
    lingual lipase
  64. when fat enters the small intestine, ____ is released and this signals ?
    • CCK
    • the gallbladder to release bile into the small intestine
  65. made in liver, stored in gallbladder
  66. _____ ____ removes the triglycerides fatty acids one at a time, leaving behind a monoglyceride
    pancreatic lipase
  67. here, new triglycerides get packaged into transport vehicles
  68. package monoglycerides and large fatty acids into triglycerides
  69. 2 routes of lipid absorption
    • directly into bloodstream
    • lymphatic system
  70. what parts of lipids go directly into the bloodstream?
    glycerol and short and medium chain fatty acid tails (less than 12 carbons long)
  71. what parts of lipids go through lymphatic system before entering bloodstream?
    • fatty acids longer than 12 carbons
    • monoglycerides
  72. ____ get released from the ___ ___ and hop into the ____ system and will travel through the ___ until they reach a point of entry into the ___ just behind the heart and eventually make their way to the ____
    • chylomicrons
    • small intestine
    • lymphatic
    • lymph
    • bloodstream
    • liver
  73. the more lipids packaged in the lipoprotein, the ?
    less dense
  74. the more protein packaged into the lipoprotein the?
    more dense
  75. As ____ moves through the body, it begins to shrink as triglycerides are removed
  76. what become the predominant lipid and the VLDL become ?
    • cholesterol
    • LDL
  77. bad cholesterol?
  78. group of vehicles made up of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein that transport lipids through bloodstream
  79. four main types of lipoproteins?
    • chylomicrons
    • VLDL
    • LDL
    • HDL
  80. largest and least dense, transport diet derived lipids, liver removes remnants from food
  81. made in the liver, composed of triglycerides
  82. circulate throughout body to provide cell needs
  83. remove cholesterol from cells, carry cholesterol to liver for recycling, anti flamatory properties
  84. good cholesterol?
  85. LDL increases risk for?
    heart attack
  86. HDL protects ?
    blood arteries from plaque formation
  87. lipids made in the liver and those collected from chylomicron remnants are packaged with some protein as ____ and shipped to other parts of the body
  88. foods high in sat fats raise?
  89. what raises HDL?
    whole grains, nuts, seeds, fish and exercise
  90. triglycerides are how many calories per gram?
  91. role of triglycerides?
    • provide the cells with energy
    • store fat as adipose tissue
    • skin insulation
    • shock absorption
  92. what is triglycerides 1st and foremost job?
    provide the body with energy
  93. the body's fat stores have unlimited capacity thanks to the special cells of the ?
    adipose tissue
  94. actively secretes several hormones and is a storage depot for fat
    adipose tissue
  95. proteins that help regulate energy balance and influence several body functions
  96. two fatty acids that the human body cant make?
    • linoleic acid
    • linolenic acid
  97. essential fatty acids?
    • must be supplied by the diet
    • linoleic and linolenic
  98. sources of omega 6 fatty acid?
    meats and vegetable oil
  99. sources of omega 3 fatty acid? aka linolenic
    canola and olive oil, walnuts and fatty fish
  100. DHA and EPA?
    • omega 3 fatty acids that the body can make
    • found in the eyes and brain
  101. these omega 3 fatty acids are essential for normal growth, visual acuity and cognitive development
    • DHA
    • EPA
  102. helps to regulate blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions
    omegea 3
  103. most fatty acid deficiencies occur in infants who have been fed fat free milk or in hospital patients, what are they missing out on
    polyunsaturated fatty acids
  104. symptoms of fatty acid deficiencies
    • retardation
    • reproductive failure
    • skin lesions
    • kidney
    • liver disease
  105. hydrolyzes triglycerides from the meal you ate,
    then the components are reassembled by enzymes in the adipose cells into
    triglycerides where they can then be stored inside the adipose cells
    lipoprotein lipase
  106. spare protein so that it can be used for other
    important tasks
    fat and carbs
  107. supplies 60% of the body’s ongoing energy needs during rest.
  108. During energy deprivation, lipase enzymes inside the adipose cells
    • dismantle the stored triglycerides and release
    • fatty acids and the glycerol directly into the blood
  109. what happens to a person who fasts?
    they will rapidly metabolize fat but the person will have to obtain some energy from lean tissue
  110. the complete breakdown of fat requires ___ or ___ so even on a total fast, a person cannot lose more than half a pound of pure fat per day
    • carbs
    • protein
  111. increases the risk of some chronic disease
    high intakes of solid fats
  112. the best thing to do is ___ solid fats in the diet
  113. what does the blood lipid profile reveal?
    the concentrations of various lipids in the blood
  114. elevated LDL is a major risk factor for?
  115. major dietary choice sources?
    meats, milk, milk products
  116. it is important to choose ?
    • lean cuts of meat
    • skinless poultry
    • fat-free milk products
  117. ____ ___ does not seem to initiate cancer development, but instead seems to promote cancer once it has arisen
    dietary fat
  118. people who eat ___ ___ __ regularly may exceed their energy needs and gain weight, especially if they are inactive
    high fat diets
  119. increase LDL cholesterol, promotes blood clotting
    saturated fat
  120. elevated blood cholesterol comes from?
    • saturated fat
    • dietary choices
    • transfats
  121. recommended intake of fat?
    20% to 35% of diet
  122. limit hydrogenated foods to cut down on?
    trans fat
  123. sources of sat fat in the US?
    • meats
    • whole milk products
    • tropical oils
  124. the Mediterranean diet is ___ in sat fat, __ __ in trans fat, ___ in unsat fat, and ___ in complex carbs and fiber
    • low
    • very low
    • rich
    • rich