most fat found in food and our bodies is in the form of a ?
what is a triglyceride made up of?
3 fatty acid tails
provide the most energy per gram
3 classifications of lipids?
a three carbon alcohol compound
made up of glycerol, fatty acids and a phosphate group
cholesterol and lecithin
all single bonds in carbon backbone with hydrogen and carbon
saturated fatty acid
contains 1 or more double bonds in carbon backbone
essential fatty acids?
methyl group at one end, acid group at another end
fatty acids are an ____ ___
full of hydrogens (all single bonds)
missing hydrogen (double bonds)
how to figure out if it is omega 3 or 6?
count the number of carbons from the methyl end to the double bond
one double bond?
more than 1 double bond?
chief form of fat in the diet
fatty acid tails can be ___ or ___
unsaturated fats? ex?
liquid at room temp
saturated fats? ex?
solid at room temp
butter, animal fats, lard
pulls off water molecules?
spoilage of fats (oils)
causes of rancidity
what do people do to slow down rancidity?
add antioxidants like vitamin E
characteristics of solid fats and oils
determine degree of unsaturation
liquid to solid? aka unsat to sat?
unrecognizable by the body
heart healthy fats
T or F sat fat=transfat
phospholipids have both a ____ and ____ parts?
water fearing fatty acid tails?
water loving phosphorous
phospholipids make good?
#1 source saturated fatty acid?
#1 source monounsaturated fatty acid?
#1 source omega 6?
#1 source omega 3?
helps vitamins and hormones pass easily through cells
ex of emulsifications?
emulsifiers in the food industry
roles of phospholipids?
part of cell membrane
phospholipids are soluble in
fat and water
food sources that contain phospholipds
only found in animal products
recommendation for cholesterol?
less than 300 mg per day
2 types of sterols?
lowers bad cholesterol
roles of sterols?
fats are water fearing, aka
digestive enzymes are water loving, aka
goal of fat digestion?
lipid digestion begins in the ____ with ____ ___
____ begins in the stomach
what does emulsification allow?
for fat and water to mix
most fat digestion occurs in the ?
enzyme found in stomach that breaks down fat
enzyme found in the mouth?
when fat enters the small intestine, ____ is released and this signals ?
the gallbladder to release bile into the small intestine
made in liver, stored in gallbladder
_____ ____ removes the triglycerides fatty acids one at a time, leaving behind a monoglyceride
here, new triglycerides get packaged into transport vehicles
package monoglycerides and large fatty acids into triglycerides
2 routes of lipid absorption
directly into bloodstream
what parts of lipids go directly into the bloodstream?
glycerol and short and medium chain fatty acid tails (less than 12 carbons long)
what parts of lipids go through lymphatic system before entering bloodstream?
fatty acids longer than 12 carbons
____ get released from the ___ ___ and hop into the ____ system and will travel through the ___ until they reach a point of entry into the ___ just behind the heart and eventually make their way to the ____
the more lipids packaged in the lipoprotein, the ?
the more protein packaged into the lipoprotein the?
As ____ moves through the body, it begins to shrink as triglycerides are removed
what become the predominant lipid and the VLDL become ?
group of vehicles made up of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein that transport lipids through bloodstream
four main types of lipoproteins?
largest and least dense, transport diet derived lipids, liver removes remnants from food
made in the liver, composed of triglycerides
circulate throughout body to provide cell needs
remove cholesterol from cells, carry cholesterol to liver for recycling, anti flamatory properties
LDL increases risk for?
HDL protects ?
blood arteries from plaque formation
lipids made in the liver and those collected from chylomicron remnants are packaged with some protein as ____ and shipped to other parts of the body
foods high in sat fats raise?
what raises HDL?
whole grains, nuts, seeds, fish and exercise
triglycerides are how many calories per gram?
role of triglycerides?
provide the cells with energy
store fat as adipose tissue
what is triglycerides 1st and foremost job?
provide the body with energy
the body's fat stores have unlimited capacity thanks to the special cells of the ?
actively secretes several hormones and is a storage depot for fat
proteins that help regulate energy balance and influence several body functions
two fatty acids that the human body cant make?
essential fatty acids?
must be supplied by the diet
linoleic and linolenic
sources of omega 6 fatty acid?
meats and vegetable oil
sources of omega 3 fatty acid? aka linolenic
canola and olive oil, walnuts and fatty fish
DHA and EPA?
omega 3 fatty acids that the body can make
found in the eyes and brain
these omega 3 fatty acids are essential for normal growth, visual acuity and cognitive development
helps to regulate blood pressure, blood clotting and other body functions
most fatty acid deficiencies occur in infants who have been fed fat free milk or in hospital patients, what are they missing out on
polyunsaturated fatty acids
symptoms of fatty acid deficiencies
hydrolyzes triglycerides from the meal you ate,
then the components are reassembled by enzymes in the adipose cells into
triglycerides where they can then be stored inside the adipose cells
spare protein so that it can be used for other
fat and carbs
supplies 60% of the body’s ongoing energy needs during rest.
During energy deprivation, lipase enzymes inside the adipose cells
dismantle the stored triglycerides and release
fatty acids and the glycerol directly into the blood
what happens to a person who fasts?
they will rapidly metabolize fat but the person will have to obtain some energy from lean tissue
the complete breakdown of fat requires ___ or ___ so even on a total fast, a person cannot lose more than half a pound of pure fat per day
increases the risk of some chronic disease
high intakes of solid fats
the best thing to do is ___ solid fats in the diet
what does the blood lipid profile reveal?
the concentrations of various lipids in the blood
elevated LDL is a major risk factor for?
major dietary choice sources?
meats, milk, milk products
it is important to choose ?
lean cuts of meat
fat-free milk products
____ ___ does not seem to initiate cancer development, but instead seems to promote cancer once it has arisen
people who eat ___ ___ __ regularly may exceed their energy needs and gain weight, especially if they are inactive
high fat diets
increase LDL cholesterol, promotes blood clotting
elevated blood cholesterol comes from?
recommended intake of fat?
20% to 35% of diet
limit hydrogenated foods to cut down on?
sources of sat fat in the US?
whole milk products
the Mediterranean diet is ___ in sat fat, __ __ in trans fat, ___ in unsat fat, and ___ in complex carbs and fiber