Art History III - Exam 2

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Art History III - Exam 2
2014-03-11 12:08:52
art history

art history 3 exam 2
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  1. St. Serapion 1628

    • Zurbaran specialized in Pius religious imagery.
    • St. Serapion wasn't yet a saint but close to sainthood.
    • Born in England/held hostage in Algeres
    • Tied up, shown in dramatic lighting with life size scale so viewer can relate to him being imprisoned.
    • Presented w/ spanish looks, another way of relating to viewer.
    • It's not presenting a story but presenting something to admire.
    • The Spinners (The Fable of Arachne) Diego Velasquez 1657
    • Court painter to Philip IVHe tended to paint fluidly where things came together far away.
    • Calabazas painting he made probably referred to an "empty head" like how a gorde is empty.
    • All this during a period where they were kind to these individuals which made Velasquez a difference kind of painter.
    • Lifesize figures in scene in act of spinning of cotton into thread.He liked using mythological stories w/ ordinary figures.
    • Blurred spokes shows motion of wheel.
    • Refers to Athena, who was challenged by Arachne and turned her into spider after making her mad."Spin the thread of life and cutting it short"
    • BG tapestry shows story, like an end result to story.
  2. Seaport with Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, Lorrain, 1648

    • Focused on ideal landscape- an ideal image of the natural world, arranged better than nature itself.
    • Downplayed human figures so viewer would take in landscape more.
  3. Kingdom of Flora, Poussin, 1631

    • Flora is in middle with green dress.
    • Colors are subdued since he composed first and filled color last.
    • Arranged in composition first.
    • Did not want to stimulate the eye, just the point across.
    • Paintings that were arranged a certain, would affect the mood.
  4. Repentant Mary Magdalen, Charles Le Brun, 1655

    • The French Academy came along as a place to officially train artists.
    • Le Brun was first president of academy.
    • Started historical painting.
    • Mary became model of the sinner.
    • Action shot, pulling away garment, and tried to capture movements of face and portray them. Almost as if creating a way to show state of mind in facial structure.
    • Students of the academy were taught to use history to create works, king wanted to be seen as a great king.
  5. Francois Girardon, Apollo Attended by the Nymphs of Thetis, 1672

    • Made for Palace of Versailles which was owned by King Louis 8th, a patron of the arts.
    • Apollo was reference for the King, a protector of the arts.
    • Apollo is seen attended by nymphs, like King was attended by servants.
    • Clustered grouping, eluding to works of Poussin.
    • Girardon "quoted" the Apollo in Vatican, ¬†same facial expression, drapery, strap for cape. Clever play in repositioning.
  6. Les Fetes venitiennes, Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1717

    • Fete Gallante was a joyous outdoor party.
    • Rococo is an intimate, whimsical painting suggesting art is not all that serious.
    • Still at a time where only rich are buying art, unlike Dutch.
    • Could've seen Rubens work since he born near Dutch area.
    • Venus is on fountain to suggest there is an amorous occasion.
    • Influence¬†of shimmering comes from Venice influence.
    • He had a nervous look to his work, unlike Rubens.
    • People don't look real, maybe from his knowledge of theatrical clothing etc and his work usually has an underlying tone to theater.
  7. Diana Resting After Her Bath, Francois Boucher, 1742

    • His paintings were less Rococo and a little less serious.
    • Shown in public exhibitions known as salons held every odd year.
    • Typical of Boucher's mythological paintings, his style always has nude women, graceful and effortlessly sitting on expensive fabric and as long as it was mytho than nudity was okay.
    • Bit risque for its time.
    • Men rarely appear in his works.
    • She is goddess of hunt and moon shown by bow and arrows and moon on head jewelry, and not just a regular woman.
    • Intentially shows dog genitalia since he wasn't allowed to show the woman's.
  8. Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Germain Boffrand and Charles Natoire, 1732

    • Hotel means private residence and salon is a private room for the lady of the house.
    • One of the biggest rooms in the house.
    • Marriage was between 19 year old and 63 year old.
    • The room is oval w/arches and contains niches and windows.
    • Comparible to hall of mirrors in palace of Versailles, has mirrors that help with light.
    • Ornaments are made of stucco with a relationship theme such as story of Cupid and Psyche in 8 paintings.
    • Geometric/Floral designs are called arabesque.
  9. Portrait of the Duchess of Chaulnes as Hebe, Jean-Marc Nattier, 1744

    • There was a use of Rococo to create allegorical portraits which were portraits of actual people as mythological characters.
    • Hebe was an ancient Greek person of beauty.
    • Eagle is symbol of Zeus.
    • Exposed breast means she not pose nude since it wasn't acceptable to do that, head was just superimposed especially since she has an 18th century head.
  10. The Swing, Jean-Honore Fragonard, 1766

    • Underlying erotic tones.
    • Sculpture of putti riding dolphin stands for the surge of love.
    • It's a private moment in garden as if viewer is spying on them.
    • Shoe flying off foot was a sign of losing virginity.
    • Cupid shushing is another sign of love.
    • The tri-corn hat is known to be used hide arousal in men.
    • The swing in many rococo paintings is a euphemism for sex because of rhythmic rocking.
  11. Nymph and Satyr, Clodion, 1770

    • Designed to not look finished w/some detail missing, sketchy quality.
    • These small ones were made to create larger sculptures.
    • Since it was mythology, subject was acceptable.
    • Satyrs are known to be "horny" with its leg up.
    • Active quality with dynamic figures.
  12. The Scullery Maid, Jean-Simeon Chardin, 1738

    • Scullery is where all washing in the house would happen.
    • Chardin muted colors of things weren't really exuberant.
    • Showed normal day people working and a quiet reflective moment caught by Chardin.
    • Relates to when Dutch did the same to show ordinary life, genre paintings.
  13. The Paralytic, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 1763

    • Piety meant devotion while Filial meant son or daughter.
    • He created multiple figure compositions.
    • Very old parents and young children helps the distinction of who is who in the comp.
    • Sheet in BG helps see steps leading up.
    • Every figure here has a job, even the dog gives the idea of nursing her puppy just like the children are nursing the ailing father.
  14. Time Smoking a Picture, William Hogarth, 1761

    • Comment on taste and fraud in the arts. Hogarth Act was law to protect engravers from having their work copied.
    • Made fun of older paintings that time smoked into work, as time progresses, their value raised.
    • People would smoke the paintings to make them seem older, a dishonest tactic.
    • Putting nude butt on sculpture shows time isn't paying attention to it or caring.
    • Disrespect is shown with cutting into painting.
    • Varnish is next to him which was also used in fake aging.
  15. Portrait of Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces, 1765

    • Refers to the ancient culture but not a direct copy so it goes with Royal Academy teachings.
    • Sacrificing to the 3 graces by pouring libation.
    • Graces are holding wreath, a sign of friendship which could mean its friendship piece with other person in work.
    • Nudity is also associated with 3 graces since friends don't hide anything from friends.
    • Roses elude to pleasantness and charm.
    • More modest than Nattiers Hebe piece with nudity.
  16. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, Joseph Wright of Derby, 1768

    • Painted nocturnal pieces with candles for dramatic lighting.
    • Used tenebrism but incorporated into modern british life piece.
    • Pump was used to show how air was needed to live.
    • Used basic colors of muted browns and reds.
    • Pair of young lovers paying more attention to each other.
    • Wright shows daily life of these scientists went around showing these experiments.
    • Shift from light as God to God as science instead.
  17. The Death of General Wolfe, Benjamin West, 1770

    • Shows battle of Quebec City 1759.
    • Mainly invented with a conveniently placed Indian, which is a bit stereotyped.
    • Shows Wolfe dying on the battlefield as a reference to death of Christ, but not slumped over, which has been painted several times.
    • West presented this in a way that seemed accurate, but thats not how he actually died, right on the battlefield.
  18. Milton Dictating to his Daughter, John Henry Fuseli, 1794

    • Interested in subjects like Shakespeare.
    • Romanticism, work considered current at the time.
    • Contributor to Shakespeare Gallery but also contributed to Milton gallery.
    • Wanted to draw from Milton stories but illustrated from "Paradise Lost", a story with Satan.
    • This isn't from Paradise Lost but actually Milton himself, a blind man.
    • He dictates with white eyes, an emphasis on his blindness with blank look on his face, like he's in another place.
    • He wasn't very skilled, his painting were skewed in many ways.
  19. Portrait of Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset, Rosalba Carriera, 1737

    • Carnival's were popular in Venice which lasted 2 months sometimes.
    • Grand Tourists would plan their trip around this to be there at this time.
    • Subject is wearing carnival attire.
    • Carriera revolutionized the use of pastels since they were quick.
    • She gave a pastel as a gift after acceptance into academy.
    • Cheaper to have portrait painted in Venice than England which were usually one hand shown and half bust.
    • Her skill can be scene in rendering of fabric.
  20. An Imaginary Picture Gallery w/ Views of Ancient Rome, Giovanni Panini, 1756

    • Grand Tourists purchased these veduta paintings as souvenirs.
    • Has ancient views in a more modern time.
    • Panini explored picture within picture view paintings.
    • Interior is an invention inspired by St Peters with things that could be seen in Rome at the time.
    • One is the Lacoon sculpture and the Farnese Hercules.
    • He added small figures into work for comparison of size of paintings.
  21. Saints Vincent Ferrer, Hyacinth, and Luis Beltran, Giambattista Piazetta, 1735

    • Style and color scheme almost monochromatic compared to other at time that used brighter color, subdued colors, also goes with humility of work.
    • Shows 3 saints pertinent to dominican friars.
    • ZigZaging saints up to angel with finger pointing upwards holding palms.
    • Hyacinth saved the Virgin Mary statue in which statue weighed more than he could carry.
    • Vincent commited scriptures to memory so he is holding a book and has a flame over head making illusion to pentecost, gesturing like crucified like Christ.
    • Louis has cup w. serpent, reminding us he nearly poisoned while barefoot suggesting humility.