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St. Serapion 1628
- Zurbaran specialized in Pius religious imagery.
- St. Serapion wasn't yet a saint but close to sainthood.
- Born in England/held hostage in Algeres
- Tied up, shown in dramatic lighting with life size scale so viewer can relate to him being imprisoned.
- Presented w/ spanish looks, another way of relating to viewer.
- It's not presenting a story but presenting something to admire.
- The Spinners (The Fable of Arachne) Diego Velasquez 1657
- Court painter to Philip IVHe tended to paint fluidly where things came together far away.
- Calabazas painting he made probably referred to an "empty head" like how a gorde is empty.
- All this during a period where they were kind to these individuals which made Velasquez a difference kind of painter.
- Lifesize figures in scene in act of spinning of cotton into thread.He liked using mythological stories w/ ordinary figures.
- Blurred spokes shows motion of wheel.
- Refers to Athena, who was challenged by Arachne and turned her into spider after making her mad."Spin the thread of life and cutting it short"
- BG tapestry shows story, like an end result to story.
Seaport with Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, Lorrain, 1648
- Focused on ideal landscape- an ideal image of the natural world, arranged better than nature itself.
- Downplayed human figures so viewer would take in landscape more.
Kingdom of Flora, Poussin, 1631
- Flora is in middle with green dress.
- Colors are subdued since he composed first and filled color last.
- Arranged in composition first.
- Did not want to stimulate the eye, just the point across.
- Paintings that were arranged a certain, would affect the mood.
Repentant Mary Magdalen, Charles Le Brun, 1655
- The French Academy came along as a place to officially train artists.
- Le Brun was first president of academy.
- Started historical painting.
- Mary became model of the sinner.
- Action shot, pulling away garment, and tried to capture movements of face and portray them. Almost as if creating a way to show state of mind in facial structure.
- Students of the academy were taught to use history to create works, king wanted to be seen as a great king.
Francois Girardon, Apollo Attended by the Nymphs of Thetis, 1672
- Made for Palace of Versailles which was owned by King Louis 8th, a patron of the arts.
- Apollo was reference for the King, a protector of the arts.
- Apollo is seen attended by nymphs, like King was attended by servants.
- Clustered grouping, eluding to works of Poussin.
- Girardon "quoted" the Apollo in Vatican, same facial expression, drapery, strap for cape. Clever play in repositioning.
Les Fetes venitiennes, Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1717
- Fete Gallante was a joyous outdoor party.
- Rococo is an intimate, whimsical painting suggesting art is not all that serious.
- Still at a time where only rich are buying art, unlike Dutch.
- Could've seen Rubens work since he born near Dutch area.
- Venus is on fountain to suggest there is an amorous occasion.
- Influence of shimmering comes from Venice influence.
- He had a nervous look to his work, unlike Rubens.
- People don't look real, maybe from his knowledge of theatrical clothing etc and his work usually has an underlying tone to theater.
Diana Resting After Her Bath, Francois Boucher, 1742
- His paintings were less Rococo and a little less serious.
- Shown in public exhibitions known as salons held every odd year.
- Typical of Boucher's mythological paintings, his style always has nude women, graceful and effortlessly sitting on expensive fabric and as long as it was mytho than nudity was okay.
- Bit risque for its time.
- Men rarely appear in his works.
- She is goddess of hunt and moon shown by bow and arrows and moon on head jewelry, and not just a regular woman.
- Intentially shows dog genitalia since he wasn't allowed to show the woman's.
Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Germain Boffrand and Charles Natoire, 1732
- Hotel means private residence and salon is a private room for the lady of the house.
- One of the biggest rooms in the house.
- Marriage was between 19 year old and 63 year old.
- The room is oval w/arches and contains niches and windows.
- Comparible to hall of mirrors in palace of Versailles, has mirrors that help with light.
- Ornaments are made of stucco with a relationship theme such as story of Cupid and Psyche in 8 paintings.
- Geometric/Floral designs are called arabesque.
Portrait of the Duchess of Chaulnes as Hebe, Jean-Marc Nattier, 1744
- There was a use of Rococo to create allegorical portraits which were portraits of actual people as mythological characters.
- Hebe was an ancient Greek person of beauty.
- Eagle is symbol of Zeus.
- Exposed breast means she not pose nude since it wasn't acceptable to do that, head was just superimposed especially since she has an 18th century head.
The Swing, Jean-Honore Fragonard, 1766
- Underlying erotic tones.
- Sculpture of putti riding dolphin stands for the surge of love.
- It's a private moment in garden as if viewer is spying on them.
- Shoe flying off foot was a sign of losing virginity.
- Cupid shushing is another sign of love.
- The tri-corn hat is known to be used hide arousal in men.
- The swing in many rococo paintings is a euphemism for sex because of rhythmic rocking.
Nymph and Satyr, Clodion, 1770
- Designed to not look finished w/some detail missing, sketchy quality.
- These small ones were made to create larger sculptures.
- Since it was mythology, subject was acceptable.
- Satyrs are known to be "horny" with its leg up.
- Active quality with dynamic figures.
The Scullery Maid, Jean-Simeon Chardin, 1738
- Scullery is where all washing in the house would happen.
- Chardin muted colors of things weren't really exuberant.
- Showed normal day people working and a quiet reflective moment caught by Chardin.
- Relates to when Dutch did the same to show ordinary life, genre paintings.
The Paralytic, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 1763
- Piety meant devotion while Filial meant son or daughter.
- He created multiple figure compositions.
- Very old parents and young children helps the distinction of who is who in the comp.
- Sheet in BG helps see steps leading up.
- Every figure here has a job, even the dog gives the idea of nursing her puppy just like the children are nursing the ailing father.
Time Smoking a Picture, William Hogarth, 1761
- Comment on taste and fraud in the arts. Hogarth Act was law to protect engravers from having their work copied.
- Made fun of older paintings that time smoked into work, as time progresses, their value raised.
- People would smoke the paintings to make them seem older, a dishonest tactic.
- Putting nude butt on sculpture shows time isn't paying attention to it or caring.
- Disrespect is shown with cutting into painting.
- Varnish is next to him which was also used in fake aging.
Portrait of Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces, 1765
- Refers to the ancient culture but not a direct copy so it goes with Royal Academy teachings.
- Sacrificing to the 3 graces by pouring libation.
- Graces are holding wreath, a sign of friendship which could mean its friendship piece with other person in work.
- Nudity is also associated with 3 graces since friends don't hide anything from friends.
- Roses elude to pleasantness and charm.
- More modest than Nattiers Hebe piece with nudity.
An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, Joseph Wright of Derby, 1768
- Painted nocturnal pieces with candles for dramatic lighting.
- Used tenebrism but incorporated into modern british life piece.
- Pump was used to show how air was needed to live.
- Used basic colors of muted browns and reds.
- Pair of young lovers paying more attention to each other.
- Wright shows daily life of these scientists went around showing these experiments.
- Shift from light as God to God as science instead.
The Death of General Wolfe, Benjamin West, 1770
- Shows battle of Quebec City 1759.
- Mainly invented with a conveniently placed Indian, which is a bit stereotyped.
- Shows Wolfe dying on the battlefield as a reference to death of Christ, but not slumped over, which has been painted several times.
- West presented this in a way that seemed accurate, but thats not how he actually died, right on the battlefield.
Milton Dictating to his Daughter, John Henry Fuseli, 1794
- Interested in subjects like Shakespeare.
- Romanticism, work considered current at the time.
- Contributor to Shakespeare Gallery but also contributed to Milton gallery.
- Wanted to draw from Milton stories but illustrated from "Paradise Lost", a story with Satan.
- This isn't from Paradise Lost but actually Milton himself, a blind man.
- He dictates with white eyes, an emphasis on his blindness with blank look on his face, like he's in another place.
- He wasn't very skilled, his painting were skewed in many ways.
Portrait of Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset, Rosalba Carriera, 1737
- Carnival's were popular in Venice which lasted 2 months sometimes.
- Grand Tourists would plan their trip around this to be there at this time.
- Subject is wearing carnival attire.
- Carriera revolutionized the use of pastels since they were quick.
- She gave a pastel as a gift after acceptance into academy.
- Cheaper to have portrait painted in Venice than England which were usually one hand shown and half bust.
- Her skill can be scene in rendering of fabric.
An Imaginary Picture Gallery w/ Views of Ancient Rome, Giovanni Panini, 1756
- Grand Tourists purchased these veduta paintings as souvenirs.
- Has ancient views in a more modern time.
- Panini explored picture within picture view paintings.
- Interior is an invention inspired by St Peters with things that could be seen in Rome at the time.
- One is the Lacoon sculpture and the Farnese Hercules.
- He added small figures into work for comparison of size of paintings.
Saints Vincent Ferrer, Hyacinth, and Luis Beltran, Giambattista Piazetta, 1735
- Style and color scheme almost monochromatic compared to other at time that used brighter color, subdued colors, also goes with humility of work.
- Shows 3 saints pertinent to dominican friars.
- ZigZaging saints up to angel with finger pointing upwards holding palms.
- Hyacinth saved the Virgin Mary statue in which statue weighed more than he could carry.
- Vincent commited scriptures to memory so he is holding a book and has a flame over head making illusion to pentecost, gesturing like crucified like Christ.
- Louis has cup w. serpent, reminding us he nearly poisoned while barefoot suggesting humility.