Chapter 12

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  1. blephar/o
    combining form

  2. conjunctiv/o
    combining form

  3. cor/o

    *Note pupil has one 'l'; the combining form has two 'll's - pay attention for spelling
    combining form

  4. corne/o

    *remember kerat/o also means hard or horny tissue from chapter 4
    combining form

  5. dacry/o
    combining form

    • tear
    • tear duct
  6. ir/o
    combining form

  7. ocul/o

    **pay attention to correct spelling and pronunciation - [oph thalm]
    combining form

  8. opt/o
    combining form

  9. phac/o
    combining form

  10. retin/o
    combining form

  11. scler/o
    combining form

  12. cry/o
    combining form

  13. dipl/o
    combining form

    • two
    • double
  14. is/o
    combining form

  15. phot/o
    combining form

  16. ton/o
    combining form

    • tension
    • pressure
  17. bi-

  18. -opia

    vision (condition)
  19. -phobia

    abnormal fear of, or aversion to specific things
  20. -plegia

  21. a/phak/ia
    • condition of without a lens
    • may be congenital, though often is the result of extraction of a cataract without the placement of an intraocular lens
  22. blephar/itis
    inflammation of the eyelid
  23. blephar/o/ptosis

    commonly called ptosis
    drooping of the eyelid
  24. conjunctiv/itis

    commonly called pinkeye
    inflammation of the conjunctiva
  25. dacry/o/cyst/itis
    inflammation of a tear (lacrimal) sac
  26. dipl/opia
    double vision
  27. end/ophthalm/itis

    **pay attention for correct spelling, the 'o' in endo has been dropped
    inflammation within the eye
  28. irid/o/plegia
    paralysis of the iris
  29. ir/itis
    inflammation of the iris
  30. kerat/itis
    inflammation of the cornea
  31. kerat/o/malacia
    • softening of the cornea
    • usually a bilateral condition associated with vitamin A deficiency
  32. leuk/o/cor/ia
    condition of a white pupil
  33. ocul/o/myc/osis
    abnormal condition of the eye caused by a fungus
  34. ophthalm/algia
    pain in the eye
  35. ophthalm/o/plegia
    paralysis of the eye (muscle)
  36. phac/o/malacia
    softening of the lens
  37. phot/o/phobia
    abnormal fear of (sensitivity to) light
  38. retin/o/blast/oma
    • tumor arising from a developing retinal cell
    • a congenital, malignant tumor
  39. retin/o/pathy
    • (any noninflammatory) disease of the retina
    • such as diabetic retinopathy
  40. scler/o/kerat/itis
    inflammation of the sclera and cornea
  41. scler/o/malacia
    softening of the sclera
  42. xer/ophthalm/ia
    • condition of dry eye
    • conjunctiva and cornea
    • cause by vitamin A deficiency
  43. amblyopia

    also called lazy eye
    • reduced vision in one eye caused by disease or misuse associated with strabismus, unequal refractive errors or otherwise impaired vision
    • the brain suppresses images from the impaired eye to avoid double vision
  44. astigmatism (Ast)
    defective curvature of the refractive surface (cornea or lens) of the eye
  45. cataract
    clouding of the lens of the eye
  46. chalazion

    also called meibomian cyst

    **do not confuse with a sty, which is an infection
    obstruction of an oil gland of the eyelid
  47. detached retina
    separation of the retina from the choroid in back of the eye
  48. glaucoma
    • eye disorder characterized by optic nerve damage usually caused by the abnormal increase of intraocular pressure (IOP)
    • if not treated it will lead to blindness
  49. hyperopia
  50. macular degeneration
    a progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in loss of central vision
  51. myopia
  52. nyctalopia

    also called night blindness
    poor vision at night or in faint light
  53. nystagmus
    involuntary, jerking movements of the eyes

    **we saw a video of this in class
  54. pinguecula
    • yellowish mass on the conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to ultraviolet light, dry climates, and dust
    • a pinguecula that spreads onto the cornea becomes a pterygium
  55. presbyopia
    impaired vision as a result of aging
  56. pterygium
    • thin tissue growing into the cornea from the conjunctiva
    • usually caused from sun exposure
  57. retinitis pigmentosa
    • hereditary, progressive disease
    • marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
  58. strabismus
    • abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes
    • caused by the visual axes not meeting at the same point
  59. sty
    also called hordeolum
    infection of an oil gland of the eyelid

    **do not confuse with chalazion which is an obstruction
  60. blephar/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the eyelid
  61. cry/o/retin/o/pexy
    surgical fixation of the retina by using extreme cold (carbon dioxide)
  62. dacry/o/cyst/o/rhin/o/stomy
    • creation of an artificial opening between the tear (lacrimal) sac and nose
    • to restore drainage into the nose when the nasolacrimal duct is obstructed or obliterated
  63. dacry/o/cyst/o/tomy
    incision into the tear (lacrimal) sac
  64. irid/ectomy
    excision of (part of) the iris
  65. irid/o/tomy
    incision of the iris
  66. kerat/o/plasty
    • surgical repair of the cornea
    • corneal transplant
  67. scler/o/tomy
    incision of the sclera
  68. enucleation
    • surgical removal of the eyeball
    • also, the removal of any organ that comes out clean and whole
  69. LASIK
    laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
    • a laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia
    • LASIK is a combination of Excimer laser and lamellar keratoplasty
    • it differs from PRK in that it reshapes corneal tissue beneath the surface rather than on the surface
  70. phacoemulsification (PHACO)
    method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle probe breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
  71. PRK
    photorefractive keratectomy
    a procedure for the treatment of nearsightedness in which an Excimer laser is used to reshape (flatten) the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea

    *it differs from LASIK in that it reshapes corneal tissue from ON the surface rather than beneath it
  72. retinal photocoagulation
    • an intense beam of light from a laser condenses retinal tissue to seal leaking blood vessels
    • to destroy abnormal tissue or lesions
    • or to bond the retina to the back of the eye
    • used to treat retinal tears and detachment, diabetic retinopathy, wet macular degeneration, glaucoma, and intraocular tumors
  73. scleral buckling
    • a procedure to repair a detached retina
    • a strip of sclera is resected, or a fold is made in the sclera
    • an exoplant is used to hold and buckle the sclera
  74. trabeculectomy

    ***know this for the test***
    ***this is a surgery for glaucoma, NOT an
          -ectomy, or excision
    ***know this for the test***

    • surgical creation of a drain to reduce intraocular pressure
    • used to treat glaucoma
  75. vitrectomy
    • surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor
    • used to treat diabetic retinopathy
  76. fluorescein angi/o/graphy
    (digital) process of recording blood vessels for the eye with flourescing dye
  77. kerat/o/meter
    • instrument used to measure (the curvature of) the cornea
    • used for fitting contact lenses
  78. ophthalm/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination (the interior) of the eye
  79. ophthalm/o/scopy
    visual examination of the eye
  80. opt/o/metry
    • measurement of vision
    • visual acuity and the prescribing of corrective lenses
  81. pupill/o/meter

    ***pay attention to spelling
    instrument used to measure (the diameter of) the pupil
  82. pupill/o/scope

    ***pay attention to spelling
    instrument used for visual examination of the pupil
  83. retin/o/scopy
    visual examination of the retina (to determine refractive error)
  84. ton/o/meter
    • instrument used to measure pressure (within the eye)
    • used to diagnose glaucoma
  85. ton/o/metry
    measurement of pressure (within the eye)
  86. nas/o/lacrim/al
    pertaining to the nose and tear ducts
  87. an/is/o/cor/ia
    • condition of absence of equal pupil (size)
    • unequal size of pupils

    **opposite of isocoria
  88. bin/ocul/ar
    pertaining to two or both eyes
  89. corn/eal
    pertaining to the cornea
  90. intra/ocul/ar
    pertaining to within the eye
  91. is/o/cor/ia
    condition of equal pupil (size)

    **opposite of anisocoria
  92. lacrim/al
    pertaining to tears

    *note, not tear ducts or sacs
  93. ophthalm/ic
    pertaining to the eye
  94. ophthalm/o/logist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of the eye
  95. ophthalm/o/logy (Ophth)
    • study of the eye
    • a branch of medicine that deals with treating diseases of the eye
  96. ophthalm/o/pathy
    (any) disease of the eye
  97. opt/ic
    pertaining to vision
  98. pseud/o/phak/ia
    • condition of a false lens
    • placement of an intraocular lens during surgery to treat cataracts
  99. pupill/ary
    pertaining to the pupil
  100. retin/al
    pertaining to the retina
  101. emmetropia
    normal refractive condition of the eye
  102. intraocular lens (IOL)
    an artificial lens implanted within the eye during cataract surgery
  103. miotic
    agent that constricts the pupil
  104. mydriatic
    agent that dilates the pupil
  105. optician
    • a specialist who fills prescriptions for lenses
    • cannot prescribe lenses
  106. optometrist
    a health professional who prescribes corrective lenses and/or eye exercises
  107. visual acuity (VA)
    sharpness of vision for either distance or near
Card Set:
Chapter 12
2014-03-10 02:21:09
Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur

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