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Plants are eukaryotic, primarily ____ organisms that mostly live on land and display many adaptations to life in terrestrial habitats
Plants most likely evolved from ____ ancestors
Ancestry: ____ kingdom
Probably originated from a single common ____ ancestor. Either Chara or Coleochaete are modern ____ most closely related to ancestry of land plants.
10 plant phyla: ___, ___, ___, lycophytes, pteridophytes, cycads, ginkgos, conifers, gnetophytes, angiosperms
liverworts, mosses, hornworts
____ include liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. Monophyletic phyla, share common structural, reproductive, and ecological features. Models of earliest plants. Found in ____ habitats.
Bryophytes display features absent from charophycean ____ but present in plants. Likely early adaptations to ____.
Charophycean display a ____ life cycle with a one cell diploid zygote.
Bryophytes and other plants display a ____ life cycle with alternation of generations
Sporic life cycle has ____ multicellular life stages.
____ ____ - produces haploid spores by meiosis
____ ____ - produces gametes by mitosis
- diploid sporophyte
- haploid gametophyte
Produces ____ gametes.
____ protects developing gametes from drying out and microbial attack.
____ - round or elongate gametangia producing sperm
____ - flask shaped gametangia enclosing an egg
Sperm swim to egg and fuse to form ____ zygote. Zygotes grow into ____.
____ remain sheltered and fed within gametophyte tissue.
Young sporophytes are ____
When mature, spores are produced in protective enclosures known as ____
Plant spore cell walls contain ____ to help prevent cellular damage.
During evolution, plant sporophytes become ____ and more ____
Distinguishing bryophyte features:
Gametophytes ___ generation. Sporophytes are dependent on gametophyte and ___ and ___. ____ or lacking tissues for structural support and conduction found in other plants.
dominant; small and short-lived; nonvascular
Lycophytes and pteridophytes:
Collectively called: ____ ____ plants. ____ - more numerous and larger in the past but now about 1000 relatively small species. ____ - about 12,000 species of ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns.
seedless vascular; lycophytes; pteridophytes
Diverged prior to the origin of seeds. Seedless vascular plants. Bryophytes are ___ and ____.
Lycophytes, pteridophytes, and seed-producing plants are ____ plants or tracheophytes. Possess tracheids for water and mineral conduction and structural support.
seedless and nonvascular; vascular
Roots, stems, and leaves
Produce specialized organs like other tracheophytes. Stems contain vascular tissue and produce leaves and reproductive structures. Contain ____ & ____. Roots are specialized for the uptake of ____ and ____ from the soil. Leaves are the ____ function.
ploem & xylem; water and minerals; photosynthetic
Adaptations that foster stable internal water content:
Waxy ____ present on most surfaces of vascular plant sporophytes that prevents pathogen attack. ____ prevents desiccation. ____ are pores that open and close to allow gas exchange while minimizing water loss
cuticles; wax; stomata
____ include cycads, ginkos, conifers, and gnetophytes. Reproduce using ____ and ____. Seeds protect and provide energy for young sporophyte. "Naked seeds" meaning seeds are not enclosed by ____.
Gymnosperms; spores and seeds; fruit
Distinguished by the presence of ____ and ____.
flowers and endosperms
____ enhance seed production. Fruits develop from flowers and enclose the seed and foster seed dispersal. ____ is a nutritive seed tissue with increased storage efficiency.
Evolutionary history of land plants:
Terrestrial surface was bare ____ years ago. Some ____ crusts.
a billion; cyanobacteria
Origin of land plants essential to the development of substantial ____, ____ of modern plants, and ____ colonizing land.
soils, evolution, animals
Compare ____ sequences from diverse plants. Analysis shows pteridophytes to be ____.
Use of fossils
Tough plant compounds help to preserve plant structures. Compared modern ____ treated to degrade all but the most resistant plant materials and found similarities with particular fossils.
3 steps to plants conquering land:
- aquatic charophycean ____ give rise to the first land-adapted plants
- seedless plants transform Earth's ____ and ____
- ancient cataclysm marks the rise of ____
algae; atmosphere and climate; angiosperms
Critical innovations in plant evolutions: ____, ____, and ____
embryos, leaves, and seeds
absent from charophyceans (algae); first distinctive trait acquired by land plants; ____ is another name for plants; 3 features: multicellular and diploid, develop by repeated mitosis from a single-celled zygote, and depends on organic and mineral materials supplied by mother plant - placental transfer tissues.
Placental transfer tissue:
cells specialized to promote ____ of solute from from gametophyte to embryo; finger-like cell-wall ingrowths; dissolved sugars, amino acids, and minerals
Capture sunlight for ____. Lycophytes produce simplest, most ancient leaves called ____ or microphylla. Other vascular plants have leaves with extensively branched veins-____ or megaphylls.
____ - sporangium with single spore and a very small egg-producing gametophyte inside
Seed plants produce two types of spore in 2 types of sporangia: micro - ____ mega - ____
ovule; male, female
Male gametophyte carries 2 sperm, one fertilizes ____, and the other fuses with gametophyte tissue to form ____.
____ ovules do NOT store food materials prior to fertilizations.