art midterm part 1

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  1. subjective
    proceeding from or taking place in a person's mind rather than the external world; when something is subjective it depends on our thoughts and emotions rather than factual evidence
  2. objective
    uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices; based on observable phenomena; presented factually
  3. content
    the principle substance of the work of art; beyond its overt subject matter
  4. form
    the literal shape and mass of an object or figure. more generally, the materials used to make a work of art, the ways in which these materials are used in terms of the formal elements(line, light, color, etc), and the composition that results
  5. iconography
    the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images
  6. conceptual art
    art in which the concept or idea takes precedent over the form or content of the work
  7. context
    the personal, social, historical, and environmental circumstances surrounding the making, viewing, and interpreting of a work of art; the varied connections of a work of art to the larger world of its time and place
  8. chiaroscuro
    in drawing of painting, the shadow cast by a figure, darker than the shadowed surface itself
  9. modeling
    in drawing, painting and printmaking, the rendering of a form, usually by means of hatching or chiaroscuro, to create the illusion of a 3d form
  10. tenebrism
    from the italian tenebroso, meaning murky, a heightened form of chiaroscuro
  11. highlights
    the spot or one of the spots of highest key or value in a picture
  12. shadow
    the unlighted surface of a form rendered by modeling or chiaroscuro
  13. complementary color scheme
    pairs of colors, such as red and green, that are directly opposite each other on the color wheel
  14. simultaneous contrast
    a property of complementary colors when placed side by side, resulting in the fact that both appear brighter and more intense when seen in isolation
  15. monochromatic color scheme
    a color scheme that consists of a variety of values of the same hue (or one single color)
  16. analogous color scheme
    pairs of colors, such as yellow and orange, that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel
  17. triadic color scheme
    a color scheme made up of three colors equidistant from each other on the color wheel; such as orange, green and violet
  18. arbitrary color
    color that has no realistic or natural relation to the object that is depicted, as in a blue horse or a purple cow, but that may have emotional or expressive significance
  19. implied line
    a line created by movement or direction such as the line established by a pointing finger, the direction of a glance, or a body moving through space
  20. linear perspective
    a mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface
  21. one-point linear perspective
    a version of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point in the composition
  22. vanishing point
    the point on the horizon line where parallel lines appear to converge
  23. two-point linear perspective
    a version of linear perspective in which there are two (or more) vanishing points in the composition
  24. foreshortening
    the modification of perspective to decrease distortion resulting from the apparent visual contraction of an object or figure as it extends backward from the picture plan at an angle approaching the perpendicular
  25. texture
    the surface quality of a work
  26. pointillism
    small distinct dots of color applied in patterns to create a larger, cohesive image
  27. absolute symmetry
    term used when each half of a composition is exactly the same
  28. asymmetrically balanced
    balance achieved in a composition when neither side reflects or mirrors the other
  29. pastel
    a soft crayon made of chalk and pigment; also, any work done in this medium
  30. print
    any one of multiple impressions made from a master image
  31. relief
    in printmaking, any process in which any area of the plate not to be printed is carved away, leaving only the original surface to be printed

    (also) any sculpture in which images and forms are attached to a background and project off it
  32. intaglio
    any form of printmaking which the line is incised into the surface of the printing plate, including aquatint, drypoint, etching, engraving, and mezzotint
  33. ground
    a coating applied to a canvas or printmaking plate to prepare it for painting or etching
  34. didacticism
    an approach to making art emphasizing its ability to teach and, particularly, elevate the mind
  35. support
    the surface on which the artist works - a wall, a panel of wood, a canvas, or a sheet of paper
  36. solvent
    a thinner that enables paint to flow more readily and that also cleans brushes; also called a vehicle
  37. buon fresco
    wet fresco; where the paint is chemically bound to the plaster, and is integral to the wall or support
  38. fresco secco
    dry fresco; where the paint is an independent layer, separate from the plaster propper
  39. watercolor
    a painting medium consisting of pigments suspended in a solution of water and gum arabic
  40. acrylic
    a plastic resin that, when mixed with water and pigment forms an inorganic and quick-drying paint medium
  41. mixed media
    the combination of two or more media in a single work
  42. collage
    a work made by pasting various scraps or pieces of material - cloth, paper, photographs - onto the surface of the composition
  43. daguerreotype
    one of the earliest forms of photography, invented by louis jacques mande daguerre in 1839, made on a copper plate polished with silver
  44. dodging
    a photographic technique that decreases the exposure of selected areas of the print hat the photographer wishes to be lighter
  45. burning
    a photographic technique that increases the exposure to areas of the print that should be darker
  46. aperture
    the opening that determines the quantity of light admitted by a camera lens
  47. shutter speed
    the speed and length that the aperture stays open - this is another factor that determines how much light is admitted through the camera onto the film
  48. auteurs
    film directors who are considered the "authors" of their work
  49. performance art
    a form of art, popular especially since the late 1960s, that includes not only physical space but also the human activity that goes on within it
  50. subtractive
    the process in which form is discovered by the removal of materials, by such means as carving
  51. additive
    the process in which form is built up, shaped, and enlarged by the addition of materials
  52. low (bas) relief
    a sculpture in which the figures and objects remain attached to a background plane and project off of it by less than one-half their normal depth
  53. high (haut) relief
    a sculpture in which the figures and objects remain attached to a background plane and project off of it by at least half their normal depth
  54. in-the-round
    as opposed to relief, sculpture that requires no wall support and that can be experienced from all sides
  55. contrapposto
    the disposition of the human figure in which the hips and legs are turned in opposition to the shoulders and chest, creating a counter-positioning of the body
  56. casting
    the process of making sculpture by pouring molten material - often bronze - into a mold bearing the sculpture's impression
  57. assemblage
    an additive sculptural process in which various and diverse elements and objects are combined
  58. installation
    an environment that is indoors
  59. earthwork
    an environment that is out of doors
  60. tertiary colors
    the range of colors on the color wheel between each primary color and its neighboring secondary colors, yellow-green, for example
  61. positive shape
  62. negative shape
  63. narrative context
    tells a story
  64. Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495-98. Oil on canvas
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  65. Franz Marc, Blue Horse I, 1880-1916. Oil on canvas.
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  66. Man Ray, Gift, 1958. (replica of 1921 original.)
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  67. Yinka Shonibare, Revolution Kid (Fox), 2013, mixed media sculpture.
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  68. Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942. Oil on canvas.
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  69. Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Porcelain urinal.
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  70. Ai Weiwei, Sunflower Seeds, 2010. Porcelain.
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  71. Gustav Courbet. Burial at Ornans. 1849. oil on canvas
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  72. Mark Tansey, Triumph Over Mastery. 1986. Oil on canvas.
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  73. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, 1640s, Marble..
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  74. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa. 1503-5. Oil on canvas.
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  75. Tomb of Ch’in Shih-Huang-Ti: standing soldiers and horses, ca. 246-210 B.C - Tomb, terracotta.
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  76. Christo and Jeanne-Claude,The Gates. 1979-2005. Steel gates and orange fabric.
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  77. Leonardo Da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, 1495-1508. oil on panel.
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  78. Caravaggio, Judith Beheading Holofernes, 1598-99. oil on canvas.
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  79. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Beheading Holofernes, c. 1612. oil on canvas.
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  80. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, c. 1625. oil on canvas.
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  81. Pablo Picasso, The Old Guitarist, 1903. oil on canvas.
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  82. Pablo Picasso, The Girl with a Goat, 1906. oil on canvas.
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  83. Honore Daumier. The Second Class Carriage, 1884. watercolor, ink wash and charcoal on canvas.
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  84. Jane Hammond, Fallen, 2004 - ongoing, mixed media.
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  85. Pierre Bonnard, The Terrace at Vernon, c. 1920-39. oil on canvas.
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  86. Eugene Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827. oil on canvas.
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  87. Gustave Caillabotte, Place de l’Europe on a Rainy Day, 1876-77. oil on canvas.
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  88. Michelangelo, Pieta, 1501,marble.
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  89. George Seurat, The Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884-86. Oil on canvas.
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  90. Chris Burden, Metropolis II, 2010, mixed media installation.
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art midterm part 1
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