proceeding from or taking place in a person's mind rather than the external world; when something is subjective it depends on our thoughts and emotions rather than factual evidence
uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices; based on observable phenomena; presented factually
the principle substance of the work of art; beyond its overt subject matter
the literal shape and mass of an object or figure. more generally, the materials used to make a work of art, the ways in which these materials are used in terms of the formal elements(line, light, color, etc), and the composition that results
the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images
art in which the concept or idea takes precedent over the form or content of the work
the personal, social, historical, and environmental circumstances surrounding the making, viewing, and interpreting of a work of art; the varied connections of a work of art to the larger world of its time and place
in drawing of painting, the shadow cast by a figure, darker than the shadowed surface itself
in drawing, painting and printmaking, the rendering of a form, usually by means of hatching or chiaroscuro, to create the illusion of a 3d form
from the italian tenebroso, meaning murky, a heightened form of chiaroscuro
the spot or one of the spots of highest key or value in a picture
the unlighted surface of a form rendered by modeling or chiaroscuro
complementary color scheme
pairs of colors, such as red and green, that are directly opposite each other on the color wheel
a property of complementary colors when placed side by side, resulting in the fact that both appear brighter and more intense when seen in isolation
monochromatic color scheme
a color scheme that consists of a variety of values of the same hue (or one single color)
analogous color scheme
pairs of colors, such as yellow and orange, that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel
triadic color scheme
a color scheme made up of three colors equidistant from each other on the color wheel; such as orange, green and violet
color that has no realistic or natural relation to the object that is depicted, as in a blue horse or a purple cow, but that may have emotional or expressive significance
a line created by movement or direction such as the line established by a pointing finger, the direction of a glance, or a body moving through space
a mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface
one-point linear perspective
a version of linear perspective in which there is only one vanishing point in the composition
the point on the horizon line where parallel lines appear to converge
two-point linear perspective
a version of linear perspective in which there are two (or more) vanishing points in the composition
the modification of perspective to decrease distortion resulting from the apparent visual contraction of an object or figure as it extends backward from the picture plan at an angle approaching the perpendicular
the surface quality of a work
small distinct dots of color applied in patterns to create a larger, cohesive image
term used when each half of a composition is exactly the same
balance achieved in a composition when neither side reflects or mirrors the other
a soft crayon made of chalk and pigment; also, any work done in this medium
any one of multiple impressions made from a master image
in printmaking, any process in which any area of the plate not to be printed is carved away, leaving only the original surface to be printed
(also) any sculpture in which images and forms are attached to a background and project off it
any form of printmaking which the line is incised into the surface of the printing plate, including aquatint, drypoint, etching, engraving, and mezzotint
a coating applied to a canvas or printmaking plate to prepare it for painting or etching
an approach to making art emphasizing its ability to teach and, particularly, elevate the mind
the surface on which the artist works - a wall, a panel of wood, a canvas, or a sheet of paper
a thinner that enables paint to flow more readily and that also cleans brushes; also called a vehicle
wet fresco; where the paint is chemically bound to the plaster, and is integral to the wall or support
dry fresco; where the paint is an independent layer, separate from the plaster propper
a painting medium consisting of pigments suspended in a solution of water and gum arabic
a plastic resin that, when mixed with water and pigment forms an inorganic and quick-drying paint medium
the combination of two or more media in a single work
a work made by pasting various scraps or pieces of material - cloth, paper, photographs - onto the surface of the composition
one of the earliest forms of photography, invented by louis jacques mande daguerre in 1839, made on a copper plate polished with silver
a photographic technique that decreases the exposure of selected areas of the print hat the photographer wishes to be lighter
a photographic technique that increases the exposure to areas of the print that should be darker
the opening that determines the quantity of light admitted by a camera lens
the speed and length that the aperture stays open - this is another factor that determines how much light is admitted through the camera onto the film
film directors who are considered the "authors" of their work
a form of art, popular especially since the late 1960s, that includes not only physical space but also the human activity that goes on within it
the process in which form is discovered by the removal of materials, by such means as carving
the process in which form is built up, shaped, and enlarged by the addition of materials
low (bas) relief
a sculpture in which the figures and objects remain attached to a background plane and project off of it by less than one-half their normal depth
high (haut) relief
a sculpture in which the figures and objects remain attached to a background plane and project off of it by at least half their normal depth
as opposed to relief, sculpture that requires no wall support and that can be experienced from all sides
the disposition of the human figure in which the hips and legs are turned in opposition to the shoulders and chest, creating a counter-positioning of the body
the process of making sculpture by pouring molten material - often bronze - into a mold bearing the sculpture's impression
an additive sculptural process in which various and diverse elements and objects are combined
an environment that is indoors
an environment that is out of doors
the range of colors on the color wheel between each primary color and its neighboring secondary colors, yellow-green, for example
tells a story
Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495-98. Oil on canvas
Franz Marc, Blue Horse I, 1880-1916. Oil on canvas.
Man Ray, Gift, 1958. (replica of 1921 original.)
Yinka Shonibare, Revolution Kid (Fox), 2013, mixed media sculpture.
Edward Hopper, Nighthawks, 1942. Oil on canvas.
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Porcelain urinal.
Ai Weiwei, Sunflower Seeds, 2010. Porcelain.
Gustav Courbet. Burial at Ornans. 1849. oil on canvas
Mark Tansey, Triumph Over Mastery. 1986. Oil on canvas.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, 1640s, Marble..
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa. 1503-5. Oil on canvas.
Tomb of Ch’in Shih-Huang-Ti: standing soldiers and horses, ca. 246-210 B.C - Tomb, terracotta.
Christo and Jeanne-Claude,The Gates. 1979-2005. Steel gates and orange fabric.
Leonardo Da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, 1495-1508. oil on panel.
Caravaggio, Judith Beheading Holofernes, 1598-99. oil on canvas.
Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Beheading Holofernes, c. 1612. oil on canvas.
Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes, c. 1625. oil on canvas.
Pablo Picasso, The Old Guitarist, 1903. oil on canvas.
Pablo Picasso, The Girl with a Goat, 1906. oil on canvas.
Honore Daumier. The Second Class Carriage, 1884. watercolor, ink wash and charcoal on canvas.
Jane Hammond, Fallen, 2004 - ongoing, mixed media.
Pierre Bonnard, The Terrace at Vernon, c. 1920-39. oil on canvas.
Eugene Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827. oil on canvas.
Gustave Caillabotte, Place de l’Europe on a Rainy Day, 1876-77. oil on canvas.
Michelangelo, Pieta, 1501,marble.
George Seurat, The Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884-86. Oil on canvas.
Chris Burden, Metropolis II, 2010, mixed media installation.