Cardiovascular Drugs

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  1. what side effect of atorvastatin (Lipitor) should pt. notify MD for?
    *atorvastatin (Lipitor) is an antihyperlipidemic drug (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor)
    rhabdomyolysis: rare condition in which muscle damage results in the release of muscle cell contents into the blood; results in muscle pain; an acute sometimes fatal disease where the products of skeletal muscle destruction accumulate in renal tubules --> ARF
  2. how do you know if simvastatin (Zocor) is working?
    *simvastatin (Zocor) is an antihyperlipidemic drug (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor)
    • total cholesterol level is under 200
    • *simvastatin (Zocor): inhibit the manufacture of cholesterol/promote breakdown of cholesterol; lowers blood levels of cholesterol, LDL's & serum triglycerides; used to tx hyperlipidemia
  3. desirable levels for total cholesterol & HDL (high density lipoproteins)?
    *high density lipoproteins: elevation decreases risk of heart disease, brings cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver for metabolism & excretion
    • total cholesterol: < than 200 mg/dL
    • HDL: < than 40 mg/dL is low, level should be > than 60 mg/dL
  4. bile acid resins (sequestrants) are not given w/ what type of juice?
    *bile acid resins (sequestrants): [antihyperlipidemic drug] bind bile in the intestinal tract preventing absorption, causing the liver to use cholesterol to make more bile, this lowers serum cholesterol
    *ex: cholestyramine (Questran, Prevalite), colestipol (Colestid), colesevelam (Welchol)
    grapefruit juice
  5. another name for niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Niaspan)?
    *niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Niaspan): antihyperlipidemic drug
    vitamin b9
  6. what med. is given w/ niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Niaspan), how much & why?
    325 mg of ASA (acetylsalicylic acid aspirin) to reduce flushing & itching taken 30 min. prior to niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Niaspan)
  7. what type of drug is gemfibrozil (Lopid) & what is it given for?
    *gemfibrozil (Lopid): increases the excretion of cholesterol in the feces & decreases the production of triglycerides by the liver lowering serum lipid levels
    gemfibrozil (Lopid): antihyperlipidemic drug (fibric acid derivative) given to tx pt. w/ very high serum triglyceride levels that are at risk for abd pain & pancreatitis & who do not experience a response to dietary modifications
  8. what type of drug is HCTZ, hydrochlorthiazide (Hydrodiuril)?
    • (thiazide) diuretic: [antihypertensive drug] increases the excretion of sodium w/ water passively following (blocks reabsorption of Na & Cl in the tubules)
    • *check potassium levels
  9. what type of drug is furosemide (Lasix)?
    • (loop) diuretic: antihypertensive drug
    • *check potassium levels
  10. what type of drug is lisinopril (Zestril)?
    angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-inhibitor): [antihypertensive drug] slows the conversion of angiotensin 1 to 2; angiotensin 2 is the body's most powerful vasocostrictor, also stimulates secretion of Aldosterone whice causes sodium reabsorption
  11. what should you be concerned about for a pt. taking furosemide (Lasix) or lisinopril (Zestril)?
    dehydration, hypokalemia, electrolyte imbalance & hypotension
  12. what s/s would a pt. taking furosemide (Lasix) exhibit if their potassium level is low?
    dysrrhythmias, muscle cramps & twitching
  13. nursing intervention prior to giving B/P or cardio med?
    take B/P & apical pulse for 1 min.
  14. what type of drug is metoprolol (Lopressor) & what is it used for?
    • beta-adrenergic blocker: antihypertensive drug
    • used for MI & HTN, stable angina, arrythmias, migraine headaches, HF & glaucoma
  15. what VS is taken before administering furosemide (Lasix)/lisinopril (Zestril)?
    • B/P
    • *hold med. if systolic pressure is below 100 or 110
  16. why is grapefruit juice not given w/ furosemide (Lasix) or lisinopril (Zestril)?
    • too acidic & deactivates med
    • *grapefruit juice interferes w/ the liver's ability to rid the body of calcium channel blockers
  17. pt. teaching regarding B/P med.?
    when any antihypertensive drug is given, postural (dizziness & light headedness occuring when individual rises suddenly from lying/sitting position)/orthostatic (occurs when individual has been standing in 1 place for a long time) hypotension can occur; rise slowly from a lying/sitting position & avoid standing for long periods of time; *take in a safe place at home
  18. potassium level?
    3.5-5.0
  19. what type of drug is bumetanide (Bumex)?
    • loop diuretic: antihypertensive drug
    • *monitor potassium levels
  20. how do you apply a patch med.?
    • cleanse & pat dry skin, use gloves (to avoid coming in contact w/ ointment) to apply patch in a hairless area
    • *B/P & pulse must be taken prior to topical drug (nitrate) administration (don't give if pulse is > than 100 or < than 60 & if B/P is too low)
  21. what type of drug is valsartan (Diovan)?
    angiotensin 2 receptor blocker: antihypertensive drug
  22. what does sublingual mean?
    under the tongue
  23. why do you get a headache w/ nitrate?
    *nitrate: antianginal drug
    nitrate causes vasodilation: increases the lumen of the artery/arteriole & increases the amt. of blood flowing through the vessels; increases blood flow resulting in an increase in O2 supply to surrounding tissues
  24. pt. teaching regarding nitrate administration?
    • med. can be taken up to 3 doses, 5 min. apart
    • *if not effective, might be an MI
  25. is nitroglycerin long/short-acting?
    short-acting nitrate
  26. is isosorbide (Isordil) long/short-acting, what is it used for & when is it taken?
    *isosorbide (Isordil): antianginal drug
    long-acting nitrate used for stable angina taken daily at the same time
  27. which side effect of isosorbide (Isordil) should the pt. notify MD for in order to change dosage?
    • headache (may be severe & persistent)
    • dizziness, weakness
    • restlessness
    • hypotension
    • flushing (capillary dilation)
    • rash
    • reflex tachycardia (bradycardia)
    • tolerance
  28. therapeutic level for pt. taking heparin?
    *heparin: anticoagulant drug
    1.5-2.5 times the control
  29. which labs are done prior to administering heparin?
    PTT & INR
  30. which labs are done for warfarin (Coumadin)?
    *warfarin (Coumadin): anticoagulant drug
    PT & INR
  31. what type of drug is enoxaparin (Lovenox) & what is it used for?
    • low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH's): anticoagulant drug
    • used in pt. at risk for DVT (ex: any kind of bone (hip) surgery)
  32. what is the antidote for heparin?
    protamine sulfate
  33. what is the antidote for warfarin (Coumadin)?
    vitamin K (AquaMEPHYTON)
  34. what should a pt. taking heparin do if their gums begin to bleed?
    notify MD (labs needed)
  35. s/s of heparin overdose?
    bleeding
  36. heparin dosage & route?
    5,000-10,000 units vian injection (SQ/IV)
  37. legal rule for heparin administration?
    checked by 2 lincensed nurses
  38. administration route for warfarin (Coumadin)?
    • P.O.
    • *heparin cannot be absorbed orally
  39. tar-colored stool for pt. taking warfarin (Coumadin) indicates?
    GI bleeding
  40. what type of drug is dalteparin (Fragmin) & in which route is it given?
    LMWH: anticoagulant drug given SQ/IV
  41. "clot buster" drugs?
    • thrombolytic drugs:
    • alteplase (Activase)
    • reteplase (Retavase)
    • streptokinase (Streptase)
    • tenecteplase (TNKase)
    • urokinase (Abbokinase)
  42. too much streptokinase (Streptase) can cause what?
    bleeding
  43. action of streptokinase (Streptase)?
    • used to dissolve blood clots that have already formed w/in the walls of a blood vessel
    • re-open blood vessels after they become occluded
    • break down fibrin clots by convertin plasminogen to plasmin
  44. another name for bloody nose?
    epistaxis
  45. what type of drug is clopidogral (Plavix)?
    adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor blocker (antagonist): antiplatelet drug
  46. what is digitalization?
    a series of (digoxin) doses are given until therapeutic effect is exerted
  47. antidote for digoxin overdose?
    • atropine sulfate
    • *life threatening toxicity is tx w/ digoxin immune fab (Digibind)
  48. brand name for digoxin?
    Lanoxin
  49. nursing intervention done prior to giving digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    • take apical pulse for 1 min. (hold drug for AP < than 60 or > than 100)
    • *dig level (0.5-2 ng/mL)
  50. what type of drug is digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    cardiotonic drug
  51. what is telemtry?
    heart monitor
  52. what type of drug is amiodarone (Cordarone)?
    class III potassium channel blocker: antiarrythmia drug
  53. which type of arrythmia is worse: atrial/ventricular?
    ventricular
  54. what is a PVC arrythmia?
    premature ventricular contractions: beat originating in ventricles instead of SA node
  55. what type of drug is lidocaine (Xylocaine)?
    • "membrane stabilizer"
    • *class IB: antiarrythmia drug
  56. action of filgastrim (Neupogen)?
    *filgastrim (Neupogen): colony stimulating factor [immunostimulant drug]
    glycoproteins that act on the hematopoietic (blood forming) cells to stimulate proliferation, differentation & maturation of WBC's
  57. what is erythropoietin?
    RBC's in the bone marrow
  58. erythropoietin is not given when what VS is elevated?
    B/P
  59. what type of drug is epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit), which route is it given & what is it given for?
    • hematopoietic: immunostimulant drug
    • given SQ/IV to tx anemias (of chron's disease) associated w/ CKD, chemotherapy, Zidovudine (AZT) therapy for HIV, postsurgical blood replacement
  60. what type of drug is darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp)?
    erythropoiesis stimulating proteins (hormone): immunostimulant drug
  61. pt. teaching for taking erythropoiesis stimulating hormone?
    • contraindicated for pt. w/ htn
    • taken daily at the same time to maintain hormone level
  62. iron supplements are taken w/ what kind of juice?
    orange juice
  63. what should you consume more when taking iron supplements?
    fiber & fluids
  64. iron supplements can turn your stool into what color?
    greenish/tarry stool
  65. what type of disease can develop w/ folic acid & iron deficiency?
    autoimmune diseases: chron's disease, colitis, lupus
  66. s/s of b12 deficiency/pernicious anemia?
    beefy red tongue & paresthesia

Card Set Information

Author:
flashcards89204
ID:
26575
Filename:
Cardiovascular Drugs
Updated:
2010-07-14 10:49:05
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Cardiovascular Drugs
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Description:
Term 3 Exam 3 Review
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