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What are the assumptions of science? (5)
 1. Nature is orderly
 2. Nature is knowable
 3. All events have natural explanations
 4. Knowledge is based on observation
 5. Nothing is self evident

What is rationalism?
Theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response.

What is empiricism?
All knowledge is derived from senseexperience

Valid/Invalid arguments?
Valid: Affirming the antecedent, denying the consequent
Invalid: Affirming the consequent, denying the antecedent

What is deductive reasoning?
Moving from the General to the Specific

What is inductive reasoning?
Moving from the Specific to the General

What is measurement?
 To assign symbols/use numbers
 according to a set of rules

What is nominal measurement?
 Strictly categorical. It is 1) Exhaustive 2) Mutually Exclusive 3)
 Without Order.
 Example: “What religion are you? 1 – Catholic 2 – Jewish
 3 – Buddhist 4 – Other"

What is ordinal measurement?
 This has an order. It is 1) Exhaustive 2) Mutually Exclusive 3) Ordered.
 4) Cannot measure distance.
 Example: “x=Highest level of education completed.1 – Less
 than HS 2 – HS or GED grad 3 – Some College 4 – College Grad 5 – Advanced
 Degree”

What is interval measurement?
 This can measure distance, including negative values. It is 1)
 Exhaustive 2) Mutually Exclusive 3) Ordered 4) Can measure distance 5) CANNOT
 calculate ratios.
 Example: A number line ordered from $10k to $10k, with
 subjects placed along the line with their stock market gains.

What is ratio measurement?
 This can measure distance and ratios, but not negative values. It is 1)
 Exhaustive 2) Mutually Exclusive 3) Ordered 4) Can measure distance 5) can
 calculate ratios.
Example: Number line ordered from $0 to $100k, people’s incomes.

Two questions to determine type of measurement:
 Is there a value order?
 Could there be negative values?

Is there a value order to the categories?
 Yes  Ordinal
 No  Nominal

Could the measurement have negative values or numbers?
 No – Ratio
 Yes – Interval

What is measurement validity?
Are you measuring what you claim to measure?

Types of measurement validity? (4)
 1. Face validity/does it look valid
 2. Content validity/does it encompass everything?
 3. Predictive validity/should be strong correlations with other studies
 4. Construct validity/degree to which inferences can be made from operationalizations in your study

What is measurement reliability?
Does the measure yield consistent and stable results?

Types of measurement reliability? (3)
 1. Observer reliability/how observer may have affected data collection
 2. Instrument reliability/are your instruments reliable and accurate?
 3. Phenomenon reliability/are there any phenomena that have affected the data?

What is an hypothesis?
tentative answer to a research problem, expressed in the form of a relationship between dependent and independent variables

What is a dependent variable?
the variable we want to explain or predict

What is an independent variable?
The variable we conjecture explains or predicts Y (dependent)

What is a control?
Any other variable that may impact the x+y relationship

What is a sample statistic?
 Limited number of observations
 Selected from a
 population
 On a systematic or random basis,
 Which yields generalizations about
 the population.

What is a population parameter?
 Numerical expressions
 summarizing various
 aspects of the entire population

What is the relationship between sample stats and population parameters?
We use sample stats to infer/generalize about the population parameter

What is a probability sample?
a sample that permits specifying the probability that each sampling unit will be included in the sample

Why is it important to have a probability sample?
So you can make an inference to the population

What is a simple random sample?
Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process, and each subset of k individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the sample as any other subset of k individuals.

Name the four types of probability samples
 1. Simple random
 2. Systematic random
 3. Stratified sample
 4. Cluster sample

What is simple random good for?
small populations

What is systematic random sampling?
 You pick a number K at random (usually)
 then every "Kth" number after that

What is a stratified sample?
Probability sampling design in which the population is divided into homogenous strata within each of which sampling is conducted

What is a cluster sample?
 The entire population is divided into clusters,
 And a random sample of these clusters are selected.
 All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample.
 D.C.R.S.S.O.C.I.S.

Three determinants of sample size?
 1. Practical factors (time/money)
 2. Math factors (acceptable error margin and sophistication of data analysis)
 3. Population factors (how diverse/homogeneous is the population?)

What are the 4 types of nonprobability sample types?
 1. Quota sampling
 2. Purposive sample
 3. Convenience sample
 4. Snowball sample

What is a quota sample?
Getting a certain quota met, e.g. get 200 construction workers

What are some purposive samples?
focus groups, precinct exit polls

What are some convenience samples?
radio call ins, magazine surveys

What is a snowball survey for?
Hard to reach populations (e.g. crack dealers)

What are the three factors of internal validity (Did x cause y)?
 1. Correlation
 2. Time order
 3. Nonspuriousness

What are the two factors of external validity?
 1. Random probability sample
 2. Real world data collection environment

What are the elements of a classic experimental design? (4)
 Stimulus/response relationship with
 Independent/dependent variables
 Pre/post testing
 Control groups

Internal validity of an experimental design
Internal validity is strong in classic experiment design because you have a large degree of control

External validity of classic experiment design
 1. Random population? No probability sample
 2. Real world setting? Maybe not

What is a correlational design?
 Data are used to
 Examine relationships between properties and dispositions,
 Establish causal relations between them, or
 Describe the pattern of relation

How do correlational and classic experimental designs differ?
correlational designs are not meant to show causation

Internal validity of correlational designs?
 1. Correlation? Either there or not
 2. Time order? Often straightforward, not always
 3. Non spuriousness? A problem for correlational design, hard to prove

External validity in correlational designs?
By definition, you have a probability sample and real world setting. Strong external validity.

What are quasiexperimental designs? (3)
 Two or more groups and or measures over time.
 May/may not have stimulus.
 May/may not have a probability sample.

Internal validity of quasiexperimental designs?
 Weaker than true experiments
 Stronger than correlational

Disadvantages of Crosssectional and Quasi Experimental
 Lack of control over rival explanations
 Causation must be logically inferred

Advantages Crosssectional, Quasi Experimental
 It allows researchers to carry out studies in natural settings with probability samples
 It doesn't require random assignment of individual cases to control groups

Criteria for inferring causation? (4)
 Comparison
 Manipulation
 Control
 Generalizability

What is a nomothetic explanation?
It relies on a sample probability or nonprobability

What is an ideographic explanation?
You can't draw a sample, and instead use narrative elements to explain (an individual or leader's decisions etc)

What is a cross sectional design?
 It draws a random sample at different points in time;
 you might ask random samples to respond to a set of questions about their attitudes (e.g. attitudes about nuclear power)

What is a longitudinal design?
Where you conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time, sometimes lasting many years.

Describe the standard normal curve? (3)
 1. It is bell shaped
 2. The mean is in the middle, with 50% on each side
 3. The mean will equal to zero, with a standard deviation equal to one

What is central tendency?
Measures that reflect a typical characteristic of a frequency distribution (mean, median, mode)

What is dispersion?
Statistical measures that reflect the degree of spread in a distribution

