Chapter 8 ap1
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What are the functions of joints and what are the two classifications?
-it gives the skeleton mobility and holds the skeleton together.
- the two classes are functional and structural joints.
What are the three FUNCTIONAL classifications??
- synarthrosis- Immovable joints
- diarthrosis- freely movable joints.
- ampiarthrosis- slightly movable joints.
**they are based on the amount of movement that the joint allows.
what are the 3 STRUCTURAL classification of joints?
- fibrous joints-
- cartilaginous joints-
- synovial joints-
Describe the fiberous joint- The Suture
- They are immovable joints for protection of the brain. They contain short connective tissue fibers
- - when they ossify and fuse and its called synotosis.
what is synDesmosis
bones connected by ligaments. the fibers length varies so movement varies.
what is gomphosis
peg in socket joints of teeth in alveolar sockets.
what are cartilaginous joints and what are the two different types?
are bones united by cartilage. they have no joint cavity and don't move very well
- the two types are
- synchonrosis -a a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites bone.
symphyses- fibrocartilage fuses to form bone. the hyaline cartilage looks like articular cartilage.
what are synovial joints.
bones Separated by a fluid filled joint cavity. all of them are diarthrotic.
Look over the six distinguishing features of synovial joints.
- 1- articular cartilage:hyaline cartilage
- 2- joint cavity
- 3-layers articular capsule
- 4-synovial fluid
- 5-different types of reinforcing ligaments.
- 6-nerves and blood vessel
What is a bursae?
-sacs lined with synovial membrane, with synovial fluid.
stops the friction where ligaments,muscle, skin, tendon or bones rub together.
Tendon sheath- are elongated bursa wrapped around tendon subjected to friction.
What are the three stabilizing factors at the synovial joints
- Shapes of the articular surface- not too big
- ligament number and location- big
- and muscle tendons that cross the joint.- biggest role.
what are some facts about the movement allowed in the synovial membrane.
all muscle attach to bone or other types of connective tissue at no fewer than 2 points.
- origin- attachment to NON-MOVABLE.
- insertion- attachment to MOVABLE bone
**contraction makes insertion go 2 origin.
what are the three general types of movements at the synovial joints
- -flexion,extention, hyperextention, ad and ab and circumduction.
- -medial rotation
- -lateral rotation
How many types of synovial joints are there?
- ball and socket
the knee, the largest and most complex joint in the body. has how many joint in the same cavity? and what are they?
Femoropatellar- plane joint and allows gliding when knee is flexed
- lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints- both femoral condlyles articulate with the menisci of the tibia.
- allows flextion and extension and some rotation when partly flexed.
anteirorly the quadriceps give rise to which three tendons?
medial and lateral patellar retinacula and the pateller ligament.
**the knee joint has 12 bursae
what are the capsular and extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee joint.
- fibular and tibial collateral ligaments
- oblique popliteal ligament
- arcuate poplitial ligament.
all of these help prevent the hyperextention of the knee.
what are the intracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee joint
- they prevent the anterior-posterior displacement.
they are vulnerable to horizontal blows. especially when knee is extended. can damage the cartilage,cruciate amd collateral ligs
the glenohumeral joint, the most freely movable joint has how many reinforcing ligaments
a coracohumeral ligament which supports the weight of the upper limb and three glenohumeral ligaments that weak and sometimes absent.
which muscle tendons reinforce the muscle tendons?
tendon of the long head of the the biceps brachii which travels thru the intertubecular sulcus to secure the glenoid cavity.
- then the 4 rotator cuff tendons
- teres minor
the hinge joint called the elbow joint. is the radius &ulna allow flextion and extension only. what ligaments surround it?
anular ligament-surrounds the head of the radius
2 capsular ligaments ulnar and radial collateral ligament which stops the side to side movement.
the coxal joint. limited by only the deep socket
1-what holds it into place?
2-what are the reinforcing ligaments that keep it in place
1- a rim of fibro cartilage called the acetabular labrum which makes deeper so u wont dislocate yo sheat.
- ischiofemoral ligaments
- along with the ligamentum teres
tempromandibular joint has what kinds of movement?
mandibular condyles articulate with the temporal bone
hinge and gliding motion. easiest to dislocate
what is a cartilage tear?
due to compresstion and sheer stress. the fragments may cause the joint to lock or bind. the cartilage rarely repairs itself.
what is a sprain?
reinforcing ligaments stretched or torn
partial tears slowly repair due to poor vascularization.
your options to heal it is to leave it alone, heal with grafts, or sew the two together.
what is a dislocation? and how is it treated?
bones forced out of the ligament. and sprains among other things happen together with it. it must be reduced to treat it.
subluxation is a partial dislocation of the joint.
what is bursitis?
bursitis-inflammation of bursa caused by a blow or friction and can be treated with rest and ice
tendonitis- inflammation of tendon sheaths because of over use. can be treated with rest, ice and anti inflammatorys if possible.
what is arthritis and how is it caused
inflammatory or degenerative disease that damages joints.
acute way can be caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics.
and the chronic forms are the big boys.
what is osteoarthritis?
- common irreversible degenerative arthritis.
- usually related to normal age process and usually in women more than men.
moderate exercise and capsacin cremes and chrondrin sulfate can help but nutritional supplements will not help.
what is lyme disease?
caused by a bacteria transmitted tick bite.
skin rash, foggy thingking and flu like symptoms.
u need antibiotics.
what is gouty arthritis
Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues followed by inflammation. more common in men. if left untreated the bones will fuse and immobilize. and goes after the big toe.
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