Clinical Framework

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Author:
jacwill
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265881
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Clinical Framework
Updated:
2014-03-10 21:24:56
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  1. what is communication
    • any act in which info is given to or received from another person concerning that persons needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states
    • process of sharing info between indivduals
    • can be broadly divided into speech and lang with speech being the expression of thoughts in spoken words
    • lang is complex, dynamic and rule based system of conventional symbols
  2. communication may be ____ or _____.
    intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms and may occur
  3. what is speech
    • the most widely used means of communication
    • the communication or expression of thoughts in spoken words
  4. what is language
    • asha defined as: a complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols that is used in various modes for thought and communication
    • lang is rule governed and is described by at least five linguistic parameters
    •    -phono
    •    -morpho
    •    -syntactic
    •    -semantic
    •    -pragmatic
  5. what is phonology
    • the study of the sound system of lang and inclueds the rules that govern its spoken form
    • it analyzes which sound units are within a lang
    • it analyzes how these sounds are arranged, their systematic organization and rule system
    •     -ex: english allows no more than 3 consonants at the beginning of a word, and some combos are not accepted
  6. what is morphology
    • the structure of words and how words are buillt out of morphemes
    •     -morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of lang (prefix, suffix, tenses)
    •     -a morpheme can be the word like dog or an addition of plurality or tense
    • counting morphemes is counting sounds not syllables
  7. what is syntax
    The organizational rules denoting word, phrase and clause order, sentence organization and the relationship between words; word classes and other sentence elements
  8. what is semantics
    • word meaning, vocabulary
    • The study of linguistic meaning and the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences
    • Includes the fact that certain words have more than one meaning (bat) or that words can have similar meanings (dog, canine)
    • Some words have more in common than others (dog, cat, hamster  vs. dog, boy, flower)
  9. what are pragmatics
    • The study of language used to communicate within various situational contexts
    • Includes the reasons for talking, conversational skills and the flexibility to modify speech for different listeners and social situations
    • Understanding that we talk differently to small children vs. older adults and certain situations dictate how and what we say (interview vs. talking to friends) (also seen with pets/animals) 
    • Use of non-verbal cues such as body language, facial expressions, gestures and word emphasis
  10. what is a communication disorders
    • the impairment in the ability to receive, send, process and comprehend concepts including verbal, nonberbal and graphic symbol systems
    • categorized as
    •     -hearing disorder
    •     -speech disorder
    •     -lang disorder
  11. what are speech disorders
    • oral, verbal communication that is deviant from the norm, it is noticeable or interferes with communication
    • articulation-impairment of the motor porduction of speech sounds
    • fluency-impairment of rate of speaking
    • voice-impairment or diff in sound of voice or voice production
  12. what is a lang disorder
    • Impaired comprehension and or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems
    • may involve one or more of phonology, morph, syn, sem, prag
  13. articulation
    • often used to describe an individuals speech or the totality of motor processes involved in the planning and execution of sequences of overlapping gestures that result in speech
    •     =skills develop following a hierarchy of difficulty as motor skills are refined through the years
    • speech sounds are central units of production
    • relate to motor/articulator skills
  14. speech sounds represent what
    • physical sound realities-they are the end of the articulatory motor processes
    • includes artic form and linguistic function
    • linguistic function includes the rules that address how specific sound units can be arranged to porduce apporopriate words
  15. what is a phoneme
    • a speech sound
    • smallest linguistic unit that when combined with other units can establish word meanings and distinguish between them
    • capable of differentiating morphemes
    • not always produced the same way in every word
  16. what is a allophone
    • refers to the changes which occur in a phoneme when produced in differing contexts (variant production)
    •     -/p/ initial position with aspiration
    •    --/sp/ initially is unaspirated
  17. what is phonology
    • the study of how phonemes are organized and function in communication
    • phonotactics-refers to description of the allowed combos of phonemes in a particular lang
    •     --ks only used at end of word
    •     --sk can be used at beginning or end of word syllable
    •     --sounds in russian not found in english
  18. phonotactics is also known as what
    phonetic variations
  19. minimal pairs
    • two words that differ by only one phoneme
    • rhyming word
    •    --hog/dog
    •    --cat/hat etc

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