Chapter 21

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Author:
Steven23
ID:
265894
Filename:
Chapter 21
Updated:
2014-03-10 22:46:21
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EMT
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Description:
Anaphylactic Reactions
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  1. Anaphylactic Reaction
    Severe, exaggerated, systemic, allergic reaction that is associated with severe swelling of the upper and lower airways, constriction of the bronchioles, leakage of fluids from the capillaries, systemic vessel dilation, and an increased production of mucus
  2. Immune System
    Defense mechanism; fights off invasion by foreign substances
  3. Antigens
    Foreign substances recognized by cells of the immune system and eventually destroyed
  4. Immune Response
    Immune system detects the antigen and produces antibodies
  5. Antibodies
    Proteins that search for the antigen, combine with it, and help to destroy it
  6. Allergic Reaction
    Abnormal response by the immune system
  7. Hypersensitivity
    At some subsequent time, when the person is again exposed to that same antigen and IgE antibodies are present, an anaphylactic reaction may occur
  8. Sensitization
    The process of developing hypersensitivity on first exposure to an antigen
  9. Histamine
    • Primary chemical mediator released from mast cells and basophils
    • Causes bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, and an increase in capillary permeability (leakage)
  10. Anaphylactoid Reaction or Non-IgE-Mediated Reaction
    A reaction to a foreign substance that resembles an anaphylactic reaction that may occur on first exposure to the substance, without immune system sensitization
  11. Malaise
    A generalized feeling of weakness or discomfort
  12. Endotracheal Intubation
    The placement of a tube in the trachea to facilitate breathing
  13. Early Noticeable Signs of Anaphylaxis
    • Rhinitis (stuffy, runny, itchy nose)
    • Tachycardia
    • Pruritus (itching) that is localized
    • Faintness or light-headedness
    • Warm, flushed skin (can appear pale)
    • Agitation or anxiousness
    • Urticaria (hives)
    • Edema of the skin and other tissues such as lips and tongue (angioedema or angioneurotic edema)
  14. Indicators of a Systemic Anaphylactic Reaction
    Acute onset (mins to several hours) with involvement of skin, mucosal tissue, or both (hives, itching, flushing, redness, edema to face, lips, tongue) AND signs or symptoms of respiratory distress OR signs or symptoms of poor perfusion or hypotension
  15. Epinephrine
    • The drug of choice for the emergency treatment of a systemic allergic reaction to insect stings or bites, foods, drugs, and other antigens.
    • Mimics the responses of the sympathetic nervous system
  16. Auto-Injector
    A spring-activated, concealed needle that is designed to deliver a precise dose of epinephrine when activated

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