research and methods
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Steps in Research Process
- 1. choosing a research question
- 2. conducting a literature review
- 3. developing a hypothesis
- 4. designing the study
- 5. conducting the study
- 6. analyzing the data
- 7. reporting the results
Ways of Knowing:
- relying on common sense as a means of knowing about the world.
- - example: suddenly knwong the answer to a problem
Ways of knowing:
- using logical reasoning and current knowledge as a means fo knowing about the world
- - example: in september, according to where you live days are still warm but nights are cool.
Ways of knowing:
- relying on a knowledgeable person or group as a means of knowing about the world
- -example: you may know there is a poverty crsis in Africa from authority figures
Ways of knowing:
- reling on what one observes as means of knowing about the world
- -example: you may observe that the earth is round by viewing photograpgs taken from space of the earth.
- casual and uncontrolled
- personal biases influence observation
- sytematic and controlled
- control= essential ingredient of science
- greatest control is in an experiment
rules or principles that guide a field of study that define the scientific method
Four Canons of Scientic Method:
- 1. Empiricism
- 2. Determinism
- 3. Parsimony
- 4. Testability
- knowledge by behavior can be gained by observing. Observing behaviors gives reasearchers a more accurate understanding of the causes of behaviors than other methods of gaining knowledge.
- - How its' used to explain behavior:
- 1. we can oberve people in their normal environment. (children at a playground druing recess)
- 2. we can ask them to complete a survey.(have them resond to items that help us measure their moods)
- 3. we can ask them to come into a lab an complete task on a computer. (test their memory for different types of information)
- behaviors have identifiable causes. By conducting studies to observe behavior, we can understand the factors that cause those behaviors to occur.
- - How it's used in psychological research: what causes behavior and look for behaviors that they can observe in their study that are consistent or inconsistent with that perdiction.
- simpler explanations of behavior are more likely to be correct. In psychological research, we develop explanations of behavior starting with the simplest descriptions and expanding only when it become clear that the beahvior is more complex than our original description of it.
- - Usefulness in psychological research:
- 1. helps scientist test their ideas more easily beacause it is easily to develop a study that might falsify a simple explanation than to develop a study that might falsify a more complex explanation.
- 2. Falsification is an important part of the research process. Th idea is relevant to the concept of testability as well and will be discussed further in the next section.
- explanations of behavior can be tested and falsified through observation. The only explanations of behavior that can be tested with the scientific method are those that can be contradicted with observations of behavior.
- - Why is falsifiability so important in psychological research:
- 1. advances psychological science much more than supporting explanations
- 2. whenever researchers can show that an accepted explanation is supported, it changes the direction of investigation in area of research and moves psychological scienec forward in gaining new knowledge about behavior.
Goals of Scientific method
- Four Research Goals:
- 1. Description
- 2. Prediction
- 3. Explanation
- 4. Application
- - Define, classify, catalogue, or categorize events and their relationships
- - Most psychology is nomothetic(relating to abstract, general or laws) , not idiographic(related to or dealing with something concrete, individual or unique)
- - Most psychology research is quantitative not qualitative
- - Correlations (relationships) among variables allow researchers to predict menatl processes and behavior.
- - Variable: dimension in which people differ or vary
- - Correlation: two measures of the same people, events or things vary together or go together.
- Correlation does not imply causation
- - Researchers understand and can explanin a phenomenon when they can identify its cause
- - Conduct controlled experiments to identify causes
- - Control: manipulate factors one at a time to determine their effect (= IV), measure DV
- - Causal Interference: staements of the cause of an event or behavior
- - Three conditions:
- 1. Covariation of events
- 2. Time-order relationships
- 3. Elimination of plauasible, alternative
- - Causal infrences and confounding:
- - confounding: when two IV's covary together
- - cannot identify which IV caused effect on DV. For causal inference, experiment must be free of confoundings.
People, settings and conditions
- apply knowledge and reserach methods to improve people's lives
Basic and Implied Research:
- Applied: research to improve peoples lives
- - often real world or natural settings
- - what is the best treatment for depression?
- - How can the veriability of eyewitness testimony be approved?
- - How can anxiety in social situations be improved?
- Basic: research to understand behavior and mental processes
- - seeking knowledge for its own sake
- - often in lab settings
- - goal of testing theories
- - examples:
- - What is the frequency of clinical depression in the general population?
- - How is information lost from memory?
- - What types of social situation can cause anxiety?
Importance of Scientific Method:
- - what we know about effective treatments and counseling techniques come from research
- - it is important that we as individuals understand that how to interpret that vast amounts of information we take in each day through media sources.
- -important to gaining new knowledge in the field
- - answerable with scientific method
- - empiracly testable(falsifiable)
- -types of research questions: descriptive, predictive and causal
types of research questions:
- - Descriptive: whether a specific behavior occurs; what the nature of the behavior is; or whether behaviors occur together
- - example: are college students anxious? ; what causes their anxiety? ; is smoking realted to their anxiety?
- - predictive: looking at patterns of relationships in variable to make educated estimates of how one might predict the presence or effect of another.
- -Causal: causes of behavior
- - written to describe research done to other interested researchers
- - Empirical: the researchers article may describe a single study or a multiple study, all of whioch relate to the same research question.
- - Review: the purpose of these articles is to organize and summarize research in a particular area of psychology to give researchers a review of research to date.
- - Theoretical: thee articles discuss new o revised theories in an area of study
- -a tentative explanation of a phenomenon, stated in the form of a prediction and an explanation
- -causal research
- - must be testable(someway to collect data); limitation for collecting data; ethics; resources (tech that is availible but not alaways affordable); falsifiable
- -predicts a specific outcome
- -states that behavior exists, and can be measured and distinguished from similar other behaviors
- - similar to predictive
associative research hypothesis
- -states that a relationship exists between to relationships that knowing the amount or kind of one bahvior helps to predict the amount or kind of another behavior
- - statistical relationship
- - similar to descriptive
Causal research hypothesis
- -states the difference in the amount or kind of one behavior casues/ produces/creates/changes in different amount or kind of the other behavior
- -bivariate= causal and effect behavior
- - cause proceeds effect
- -demonstates statistical relationship
- -elimination of alternative explanations
- - similar to causal beahvior
- -Without intervention: naturalistic observation
- -With intervention: particpant, structured and field(problem: people chage usual behavior because of knowledge of observation)
ways to avoid reactivity of participants
- 1. Unobtrusive/indirect observational method: examine past behaviors. two types are physical and archival
- 2. Recording behavior3. blind testing
- 4. Random assignment5. •Controlling
- -Conceal observer
- -Disguised participant observation
- -Use indirect (unobtrusive)
- -Adapt participants to observer
- -Limit information about study
- - examine relationships between DV's
- -goal: to detremine idf different behaviors occur together
open ende questions & closed ended questions
- -open ended: designed to encourage a full and meaningful answer using the subjects own knowledge and feelings (indirect)
- - How is your relationship with your boss?
- -closed ended: short or single worded answer (direct)
- - do u get on well with your boss?
response to an event; proceeds explanatory variable
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