Trematodes and Acanthocephalans

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Trematodes and Acanthocephalans
2014-03-11 02:24:57
trematodes acanthocephalans domestic animals cpp parasitology

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  1. Phylum Platyhelminthes
    • Trematodes
    • Flukes
  2. Trematodes morphology
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
    • dorsoventrally flattened
    • leaf shaped
    • unsegmented
  3. Digenean trematodes
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
    • Endoparasites of humans, domestic and wild animals
    • referred to as "FLUKES"
    • complex, indirect life-cycles using mollusk intermediate hosts
    • obvious external features: oral suckers, ventral sucker for attachment
    • mouth leads to muscular pharynx which pumps food into two blind ending caecae - regurgitate digesta
    • most species are hermaphrodites
  4. Fasciola hepatica
    • Common name: liver fluke
    • Host: cattle, sheep, rabbits, horse
    • Location of adult: bile duct
    • Intermediate host: 1 aquatic snail (Lymnaea trunculata). 2 cercariae encyst on aquatic vegetation
    • Diagnosis: fecal sedimentation
    • Symptoms: abdominal disease in humans
    • Eggs: oval, yellow-brown, and distinct operculum
    • Importance: causes "liver rot" livers condemned at slaughter
    • Fasciola hepatica
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
    • Fasciola hepatica
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
  5. Nanophyetus salmincola
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
    • Common name: salmon poisoning fluke of dogs
    • Host: dogs
    • Location of adult: small intestine
    • Intermediate host: 1 freshwater snail. 2 salmon
    • Eggs: yellowish brown, indistinct operculum, small, blunt point at the end opposite
    • of operculum
    • Diagnosis: fecal float
    • Notes: fluke is a vector for rickettsia (a type of bacteria) that causes "salmon poisoning"
    • Nanophyetus salmincola
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
  6. Salmon poisoning
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
    • caused by Nanophyetus salmincola
    • flukes excyst and embed in the intestinal mucosa introducing the rickettsial agent Necoreckettsia helminthoeca
    • N. salmincola  produces little or no disease
    • mainly pacific southwest
  7. Alaria spp
    • Platyhelminthes.Trematode. Fluke.
    • Common name:  intestinal flukes of dogs and cats
    • Host: dogs and cats
    • Location of adult: small intestine
    • Intermediate host: 1. snail 2. frog, snake, mouse
    • Eggs: large, golden brown, operculated
  8. Dicrocoelium dendriticum
    • Trematode. Fluke
    • Common name: lancet fluke
    • transmission route: ingestion of infected ants
    • intermediate hosts: land snail (Cionella lubrica), wood ant
    • host: sheep, goats, cattle
    • location of adult: bile duct
    • Alaria sp
    • Trematode. Fluke
    • Dirocoelium dentriticum
    • Trematode. Fluke
    • Paramphistomum spp
    • Cotylophoron spp
    • Trematode. Fluke
  9. Paramphistomum spp and
    Cotylophoron spp
    • Plathyhelminthes. Trematode. Fluke.
    • Common name: rumen flukes
    • Host: cattle, sheep, goat and other ruminants
    • Intermediate host: 1 aquatic snail. 2 cercariae encyst upon aquatic vegetation
    • Disease: occurs when eaten in large numbers. enteritis and diarrhea result when immature flukes migrate along the small intestine toward rumen. juveniles ingest large plugs of intestinal lining
  10. Paragonimus kellicotti
    • Plathyhelminthes. Trematode. Fluke.
    • Common name: lung fluke of cats and dogs
    • Host: cats and dogs
    • Location of adult: lung parenchyma
    • Intermediate host: 1 operculated snail. 2 crayfish
    • Diagnosis: fecal float or tracheal wash.
    • Symptoms: chronic cough, weakness, lethargy
    • eggs are coughed up, swallowed and passed in feces.
    • After ingestion, larvae penetrate intestinal wall and migrate to lungs
    • Paragonimus kellicotti
    • Platyhelminthes. Trematode. Fluke
  11. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
    • Acanthocephalan
    • Common name: thorny-headed worm of swine
    • Host: pigs
    • Location of adult: small intestinal mucosa
    • Intermediate host: dung beetle
    • Diagnosis: standard fecal flotation
    • Symptoms: can cause perforation, peritonitis, and death
    • Notes: can be confused with Ascaris suum
    • Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
    • Acanthocephalan
  12. Onicola canis
    • Acanthocephalan
    • Common name: thorny-headed worm of dogs
    • Host: dogs
    • Location of host: small intestinal mucosa
    • Intermediate host: dung beetle
    • Paratenic host: armadillo
    • Diagnosis: standard fecal flotation
    • Eggs: brown, oval
    • Acanthocephalan
    • Onicola canis
  13. Fecal sedimentation
    • detects most parasite eggs. not as good as flotation
    • used when eggs or cysts have too high a specific gravity to float
    • can be used for roundworm and tapeworm eggs
    • most routinely used for trematode eggs