Physiology 5 6 7

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Physiology 5 6 7
2014-03-11 12:10:52
Physiology Exam
Chapter 5,6 & 7
Show Answers:

  1. Does Gylcolysis require oxygen
  2. where does glycolysis occur?
  3. During Glycolysis ______ turns into _______
    1 glucose turns into 2 pyruvic acid
  4. How many ATP are invested
    • 2 are invested
    • 4 are made so the net yield is 2
  5. After glycolysis what happen if there is no Oxygen?
    go into Anaerobic
  6. what is good and bad about Anaerobic
    • good- it is fast (it is the quick fix)
    • bad- produces low amounts of ATP
  7. What is the purpose of Anaerobic
    Generate NAD
  8. During Anaerobic ________ is turned into ______
    Pyruvic Acid is turned into Lactic Acid
  9. During the whole process of Anaerobic what is the net yield
  10. Where Does the Kreb Cycle happen?
    matrix of the Mitochondria
  11. Where is CO2 made?
    Kreb Cycle
  12. What is the purpose of the Kreb Cycle?
    to make Energy Taxi

    (NADH+FADH2) ?? ask Larry
  13. Hoe much ATP is made during the Kreb Cycle?
  14. Good thing and Bad thing about aerobic respiration
    • Good ting - makes a lot of ATP
    • Bad thing - slow and needs O2
  15. What is the importance of Oxygen
    • it acts as the terminal electron acceptor
    • and allows full breakdown
  16. what does the Proton Pump do?
    Builds the Gradient
  17. what does the gradient do?
    (the one that the  proton pump makes)
    powers the ATP Synthase
  18. What does oxygen turn into?
  19. How many ATP are made throughout the Aerobic
    about 28

    or 32

    ask larry
  20. where does the Electron Transport take place
    in the cristae of the mitochondria (inner lining)
  21. what happens during oxidative phosphorylation (Electron Transport)
    • electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transported along an electron transport chain
    • As electrons are passed through the electron transport chain, H+ is pumped out of the matrix into the inner membrane
    • the flow of H+ makes ADP produce ATP
    • electron then bind with oxygen to form water
  22. where do Ketone Bodies come from?
    the liver
  23. Fatty acid comes from
    adipose tissue
  24. lactic acid and amino acid come from
  25. How do cell communicate with each other?
    by secreting chemical regulators into the extrcellular environment
  26. Describe body fluid break down
    __ of our water is within cells __ in extracellular
    67% in within the cells in the intracellular compartment

    • 33% is in the extracellular compartment
    • of that 33% ---20% is in the blood and 80% makes up interstitial fluid; connects the intracellular compartment with the blood plasma
  27. Passive Transport
    molecules move from higher to lower concentration without using metabolic energy
  28. Active Transport
    Molecules move from lower to higher concentrations using ATP and specific carrier pumps
  29. a solution consists of
    • a solvent (water)
    • solute (molecules dissolved in water)
  30. where are sodium potassium pumps found
    in all body cells
  31. what are the 3 functions of the sodium potassium pump
    • provides energy for coupled transport of other molecules
    • produces electrochemical impulses in neuron and muscle cells
    • maintains osmolarity
  32. Important facts about Active Transport
    • ATP is needed
    • Low to High
    • goes against the Gradient

    • PUMPS
    • it uses ATP to build gradient and whn the time is right the door is open and floods out
  33. Important facts about Passive transport
    • No ATP needed
    • High to Low
    • Goes down the gradient
  34. Osmosis important to know
    solutes suck
  35. gradient and semipermeable membrane facts
    • solutes suck
    • Low to High Solutes
    • Dilute to concentrate
    • Hypotonic to Hypertonic
  36. cells that are in a hypotonic solution wil ___
  37. cells in a hypertonic solution will ____
    shrivel up
  38. depolarization is driven by
    the flow of Na+ into the cell
  39. when the membrane reaches 30 what happens

    • sodium channels are deactivated
    • at the same time Voltage gated channels are open and the potassium flows out of the cell
  40. difference between osmosis and diffusion
  41. what is depolarization
    when sodium goes in
  42. an action potential arriving at the axon terminals will stimulate the opening of voltage gate ion channels
    Which Ion will then flood in the presynaptic neuron?
  43. if 145 sucrose is in the cell what will draw the fluid out?
    anything greater than 14%
  44. what are the sacs called that contain neurotransmitters
    Synaptic Vesicles
  45. What neurotransmitter that is used to stimulate skeletal contraction
    Acetlcholine (ACH)
  46. Neurotransmitters will cross the synaptic cleft and bind to what type of ion channel
    Ligand Gated
  47. the sodium potassium pump creates a _______ charge inside the cell
  48. Every cycle of the Na/K pumps kick out how many Na+
  49. At resting membrane potential is there more potassium inside the cell or outside?
  50. 20% inside the cell and 20% outside the cell
    what will happen?
    • Nothing they are equal
    • Isotonic
  51. Purpose of NT reuptake inhibitors
    trying to keep NT in the NT in the cleft longer so it will keep stimulating the 2nd cell
  52. which NT is the "pleasure center"
  53. Aerobic Respiration takes place in what structure?
  54. what do we call ion channels that are always open?
    Leak Channels
  55. fight or flight neurotransmitter
  56. if neg charged ion flood flood into the post-synaptic cell, what will happen?
    • hyperpolarization
    • inhibits
    • deadens nerve
  57. if inside the cell is 50% and outside is 40%
    which way will water go?
    • because solutes suck moves from hypo to hyper
    • will draw water into the cell
  58. what is the true purpose of Anaerobic respiration?
    • to regenerate NAD
    • listen 40.25
  59. Which NT for Mood/Behavior?
  60. what are the 2 things needed for osmosis to happen?
    • gradient differences
    • semipermeable membrane
  61. During Anaerobic _____ ____ is formed?
    Lactic Acid
  62. How many ATP is needed to kick start respirations?
  63. the purpose of the kreb cycle is to make
    • NADH, FADH2
    • "energy taxi"
  64. both anaerobic and aerobic respirations begins with what event?
  65. Sensory Adaption
    get used to something
  66. glucose splits into 2 ____ molecules, which continue on into either anaerobic or aerobic respiration
    pyruvic acid
  67. what causes repolarization?
    potassium goes out
  68. what NT is involved in sleep
  69. what is the period of time called after action potential
    refractory period
  70. what specific area of a neuron is action potential  is generated
    axon hillock
  71. what is a gradient
    • the difference
    • it could be pressure, solution or concentration
  72. one thing good about aerobic resp
    • produces a lot of ATP
    • con O2 is needed
  73. neurotransmitter that controls purposeful movement
  74. what is it called when an action potential "jumps" from one node of Ranvier to the next?
    Saltatory Conduction
  75. Referred Pain
    when you feel pain somewhere other than where the pain is
  76. the net yield od anaerobic respiration is how many ATP?
  77. Net yield of ATP made in aerobic respiration
    32 about
  78. carbon dioxide is made where
    kreb cycle
  79. during which stage of aerobic resp is oxygen used?
    • oxidative transport
    • or
    • phophorolation