Physiology 5 6 7
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Does Gylcolysis require oxygen
where does glycolysis occur?
During Glycolysis ______ turns into _______
1 glucose turns into 2 pyruvic acid
How many ATP are invested
- 2 are invested
- 4 are made so the net yield is 2
After glycolysis what happen if there is no Oxygen?
go into Anaerobic
what is good and bad about Anaerobic
- good- it is fast (it is the quick fix)
- bad- produces low amounts of ATP
What is the purpose of Anaerobic
During Anaerobic ________ is turned into ______
Pyruvic Acid is turned into Lactic Acid
During the whole process of Anaerobic what is the net yield
Where Does the Kreb Cycle happen?
matrix of the Mitochondria
Where is CO2 made?
What is the purpose of the Kreb Cycle?
to make Energy Taxi
(NADH+FADH2) ?? ask Larry
Hoe much ATP is made during the Kreb Cycle?
Good thing and Bad thing about aerobic respiration
- Good ting - makes a lot of ATP
- Bad thing - slow and needs O2
What is the importance of Oxygen
- it acts as the terminal electron acceptor
- and allows full breakdown
what does the Proton Pump do?
Builds the Gradient
what does the gradient do?
(the one that the proton pump makes)
powers the ATP Synthase
What does oxygen turn into?
How many ATP are made throughout the Aerobic
where does the Electron Transport take place
in the cristae of the mitochondria (inner lining)
what happens during oxidative phosphorylation (Electron Transport)
- electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transported along an electron transport chain
- As electrons are passed through the electron transport chain, H+ is pumped out of the matrix into the inner membrane
- the flow of H+ makes ADP produce ATP
- electron then bind with oxygen to form water
where do Ketone Bodies come from?
Fatty acid comes from
lactic acid and amino acid come from
How do cell communicate with each other?
by secreting chemical regulators into the extrcellular environment
Describe body fluid break down
__ of our water is within cells __ in extracellular
67% in within the cells in the intracellular compartment
- 33% is in the extracellular compartment
- of that 33% ---20% is in the blood and 80% makes up interstitial fluid; connects the intracellular compartment with the blood plasma
molecules move from higher to lower concentration without using metabolic energy
Molecules move from lower to higher concentrations using ATP and specific carrier pumps
a solution consists of
- a solvent (water)
- solute (molecules dissolved in water)
where are sodium potassium pumps found
in all body cells
what are the 3 functions of the sodium potassium pump
- provides energy for coupled transport of other molecules
- produces electrochemical impulses in neuron and muscle cells
- maintains osmolarity
Important facts about Active Transport
- ATP is needed
- Low to High
- goes against the Gradient
- it uses ATP to build gradient and whn the time is right the door is open and floods out
Important facts about Passive transport
- No ATP needed
- High to Low
- Goes down the gradient
Osmosis important to know
gradient and semipermeable membrane facts
- solutes suck
- Low to High Solutes
- Dilute to concentrate
- Hypotonic to Hypertonic
cells that are in a hypotonic solution wil ___
cells in a hypertonic solution will ____
depolarization is driven by
the flow of Na+ into the cell
when the membrane reaches 30 what happens
- sodium channels are deactivated
- at the same time Voltage gated channels are open and the potassium flows out of the cell
difference between osmosis and diffusion
what is depolarization
when sodium goes in
an action potential arriving at the axon terminals will stimulate the opening of voltage gate ion channels
Which Ion will then flood in the presynaptic neuron?
if 145 sucrose is in the cell what will draw the fluid out?
anything greater than 14%
what are the sacs called that contain neurotransmitters
What neurotransmitter that is used to stimulate skeletal contraction
Neurotransmitters will cross the synaptic cleft and bind to what type of ion channel
the sodium potassium pump creates a _______ charge inside the cell
Every cycle of the Na/K pumps kick out how many Na+
At resting membrane potential is there more potassium inside the cell or outside?
20% inside the cell and 20% outside the cell
what will happen?
- Nothing they are equal
Purpose of NT reuptake inhibitors
trying to keep NT in the NT in the cleft longer so it will keep stimulating the 2nd cell
which NT is the "pleasure center"
Aerobic Respiration takes place in what structure?
what do we call ion channels that are always open?
fight or flight neurotransmitter
if neg charged ion flood flood into the post-synaptic cell, what will happen?
- deadens nerve
if inside the cell is 50% and outside is 40%
which way will water go?
- because solutes suck moves from hypo to hyper
- will draw water into the cell
what is the true purpose of Anaerobic respiration?
- to regenerate NAD
- listen 40.25
Which NT for Mood/Behavior?
what are the 2 things needed for osmosis to happen?
- gradient differences
- semipermeable membrane
During Anaerobic _____ ____ is formed?
How many ATP is needed to kick start respirations?
the purpose of the kreb cycle is to make
both anaerobic and aerobic respirations begins with what event?
get used to something
glucose splits into 2 ____ molecules, which continue on into either anaerobic or aerobic respiration
what causes repolarization?
potassium goes out
what NT is involved in sleep
what is the period of time called after action potential
what specific area of a neuron is action potential is generated
what is a gradient
- the difference
- it could be pressure, solution or concentration
one thing good about aerobic resp
- produces a lot of ATP
- con O2 is needed
neurotransmitter that controls purposeful movement
what is it called when an action potential "jumps" from one node of Ranvier to the next?
when you feel pain somewhere other than where the pain is
the net yield od anaerobic respiration is how many ATP?
Net yield of ATP made in aerobic respiration
carbon dioxide is made where
during which stage of aerobic resp is oxygen used?
- oxidative transport
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