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  1. Socioeconomic Status
    income, education, and occupational status
  2. Threshold Model (SES & Health/Illness)
    increasing SES improves health up to a certain point
  3. Gradient Model (SES & Health/Illness)
    increasing SES improves heath at every point in the cale, even above the poverty line; supported by research
  4. Morbidity
    the number of individuals with a particular disease; degree of symptoms/severity of illness
  5. Mortality
    likelihood of ding from a particular disease
  6. Illnesses most associated with SES differences
    • melanoma (higher)
    • heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, tuberculosis, chronic respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal disease, adverse birth outcomes, accidental and violent death
  7. Cultural Discrimination
    ideals of what is good differ from culture to culture
  8. Institutional Discrimination
    denying of resources because of policies
  9. Interpersonal Discrimination
    any experience an individual has concerning belonging to a group
  10. Discrimination and Breast Cancer (Taylor, 2007)
    women of color were discriminated against in treatment of breast cancer; participants who faced everyday discrimination were the most likely to develop breast cancer before 50
  11. Coping
    individual efforts, such as thoughts and behaviors, made to manage distressing problems and emotions that effect the physical and psychological outcomes of stress
  12. Approach Coping
    approach a stressor and make active efforts to resolve it
  13. Avoidance Coping
    avoid a stressor and the problems that go with it
  14. Problem-focused Coping
    reduce the demands of the stressor; increase ability to cope
  15. Emotion-focused Coping
    changing one's reaction to the stressor and controlling the emotional responses

    ex. healthy=taking a bath; unhealthy=smoking
  16. Hardiness - commitment, challenge, control
    • commitment - sense of purpose
    • challenge - challenge vs. threat
    • control - the extent to which individuals felt they could control things around them
  17. Hardiness and Health Study (Kobasa, 1982)
    survey sent out to lawyers to test their stress level, hardiness level, and health (sickness)

    • low hardiness+high stress= sickness
    • high hardiness+high stress= less sickness
    • no change in low stress
  18. Optimism
    more likely to use problem-focused coping strategies measured by the LOT
  19. Attribution Types: Internal vs. External
    due to self or circumstances?
  20. Attribution Types: Unstable vs. Stable
    one time occurrence or consistent pattern?
  21. Attribution Types: Specific vs. Global
    unique to this situation or generalizable?
  22. Depressive vs. Explanatory Style
    interal, global, ad stable
  23. Perceived Control
    the belief that you can determine your own behavior, influence your environment, and bring about desired outcomes
  24. Social Support
    information from others that one is loved, cared for, esteemed and valued, and part of a network of communication and mutual obligation
  25. Tangible/Instrumental Support
    actions or physical things received to provide support
  26. Informational Support
    advice or help
  27. Emotional Support
    knowing that others care for you and wish to help you
  28. Perceived vs. Received Support
    perceived - how the person views others around him/her in terms of helping

    received - the person receives help
  29. Impact of Social Support on Health and Illness...
    physiological responses, physical adaptations, and psychological adjustment to illness, medication adherence, health behavior
  30. Buffering Hypothesis
    social support can help us in times of crisis, act as a cushion from bad effects (reduce) of stress and changes the stress response
  31. Matching Hypothesis
    social support is most effective when there is a match between what is needed and what is available from one's social network
  32. Experimental Research
    a technique for establishing causal relationships between two variables
  33. The INDEPENDENT variable is _______ by the researcher to measure its effect on the dependent variable
  34. The DEPENDENT variable is ______ to determine whether it is affected by the independent variable
  35. Placebo Control
    "sugar pill" given as an intentionally ineffective treatment to replace a medical treatment; ethical issues with life risking factors
  36. Waitlist Control
    all receive treatment, but one group has to wait; problems with the group that received nothing (treatment cannot be deemed superior when compared to nothing)
  37. Attentional Control
    same time and energy given to control and experimental groups; issue of comparison, similar to waitlist
  38. Standard of Care Control
    control group gets the therapy that is used to the greatest effect in the world
  39. Random Assignment
    method of assigning participants to conditions by chance; any individual has an equal chance of being in any experimental condition
  40. Steps to Experimental Research
    • 1. CONTROL confounding variables - random assignment
    • 2. MANIPULATE independent variable - attentional intervention
    • 3. MEASURE dependent variable
  41. Demand Characteristics
    people often respond the way they think the experimenter wants them to respond
  42. Self-presentation Bias
    people often act in a way that they think makes them look good
  43. Ways to Avoid Subject Bias
    • ensure anonymity and confidentiality
    • measure involuntary or non-obvious behavior
    • keep the subject blind to the hypothesis
  44. Expectancy Effect
    researcher subtly communicates expectations to participant
  45. Interaction Effects
    characteristics of experimenter may skew results
  46. Ways to Avoid Experimenter Bias
    • "double blind" technique - both parties are randomly assigned
    • using multiple experimenters with minimal experimental contact
Card Set
cards for test no.2 (health disparities - research methods prt 2)
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