Chapter 22

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  1. Poison
    Any substance--liquid, solid, or gas--that impairs health or causes death by its chemical action when it enters the body or comes in contact with the skin
  2. Toxicology
    The study of toxins, antidotes, and the effects of toxins on the body
  3. Toxin
    A drug or substance that is poisonous to a human and will cause certain adverse effects that may potentially lead to death
  4. Antidotes
    A substance that will neutralize the effects of the poison or toxic substance
  5. Ingested Poison
    One that is swallowed and enters the gastrointestinal system
  6. Inhaled Poison
    One that is inhaled and goes to the alveoli which then enters the blood stream
  7. Huffers
    Patients who inhale paints and propellants
  8. Injected Poison
    One that enters the body through a break in the skin, usually by the intentional injection of a drug or by the bite or sting of an animal or insect
  9. Absorbed Poison
    Usually a chemical or substance from a poisonous plant that enters through the skin--will generally cause a burn, lesion, or inflammation
  10. Food Poisoning
    Caused by ingestion of food that contains bacteria or the toxins that the bacteria produces.

    • Salmonella: from contaminated food and water, or from undercooked food
    • Campylobacter: common poisoning from contaminated poultry, milk, and water
    • Escherichia Coli (E. coli): Severe gastrointestinal poisoning from numerous contaminated foods, undercooked foods, and untreated water
    • Staphylococcus Aureus: Food poisoning from unhygienic food preparation
  11. Drug Abuse
    The self-administration of drugs in a manner that is not in accord with approved medical or social patterns
  12. Overdose
    An emergency that involves poisoning by drugs or alcohol
  13. Withdrawal
    A period of abstinence from the drug or alcohol to which the body has become accustomed
  14. Pharming
    Refers to adolescents who raid their parents' or friends' medicine cabinets for prescription medications or who fake symptoms to obtain prescription medications
  15. CNS Stimulants
    • Excite the central nervous system
    • Signs and symptoms: Excitability, elevated mood, agitation, apprehension, uncooperativeness, tachycardia, tachypnea, dilated pupils, dry mouth, sweating, increased blood pressure, loss of appetite, lack of sleep
  16. CNS Depressants
    • Depress the central nervous system
    • Signs and symptoms: Euphoria, drowsiness, sleepiness, decreased breathing rates and volumes, bradycardia, hypotension, dilated pupils that are sluggish to respond to light
  17. Narcotics
    • CNS depressants that are derived from opium or synthetic opium
    • Signs and symptoms: bradycardia, hypotension, inadequate breathing rates and volume, cool, clammy skin, lethargy, constricted pupils, nausea. Respiratory depression or arrest can occur
  18. Hallucinogens
    • Sometimes called psychedelic drugs, cause hallucinations
    • Signs and symptoms: motor disturbances, paranoia, anxiety, visual or auditory hallucinations, tachycardia, dilated pupils, flushed face, poor perception of time and distance
  19. Volatile Inhalants
    • Substances that are inhaled
    • Signs and symptoms: excitement, euphoria, drunkenness, aggressiveness, depression, headache, drowsiness, nausea, swollen mucous membranes of the nose and mouth, glazed eyes, slurred speech, hallucinations, incoordination, erratic pulse and blood pressure, seizures
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Chapter 22
2014-03-11 18:15:33

Toxicologic Emergencies
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