Chapter 14

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Chapter 14
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2014-03-11 19:59:28
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Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur
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Musculoskeletal System
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  1. Define

    periosteum

    peri- oste/o  um
    • outermost layer of the bone
    • made up of fibrous tissue
  2. Define

    compact bone
    dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum
  3. cancellous (spongy) bone
    contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone
  4. Define

    endosteum

    endo- oste/o  um
    membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone
  5. Define

    diaphysis
    shaft of the long bones
  6. Define

    epiphysis
    plural: epiphyses
    • end of each long bone
    • *portion of bone attached for a time to another bone by a cartilage but that later combines with the principal bone [allows for the growth plate]
  7. Define

    bone marrow

    and name both types
    • material found in the cavities of bones
    • red marrow
    • yellow marrow
  8. Define

    red marrow
    • thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones
    • location of blood cell formation
  9. Define

    yellow marrow
    soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones
  10. Define

    maxilla
    upper jawbone
  11. Define

    mandible
    lower jawbone
  12. Define

    vertebral column
    • made up of bones called vertebra (Pl: vertebrae) through which the spinal cord runs
    • the vertebral column protects the spinal cord
    • supports the head
    • and provides points of attachment for ribs and muscles
  13. Define and name

    cervical vertebrae
    • C1-C7
    • first set of seven bones
    • forming the neck
  14. Define and name

    thoracic vertebrae
    • T1-T12
    • second set of 12 vertebrae
    • they articulate [To join or connect together loosely to allow motion between the parts] with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine
  15. Define

    articulate, as it pertains to the skeleton
    To join or connect together loosely to allow motion between the parts.
  16. Define and name

    lumbar vertebrae
    • L1-L5
    • third set of five larger vertebrae which forms the inward curve of the spine
  17. Define

    sacrum
    • next five vertebrae
    • which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones
  18. Define

    coccyx
    • four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone
    • *about the size of a stamp
  19. Define

    lamina
    plural: laminae
    part of the vertebral arch

    *think of the webbing between the points of each individual vertebra, we discussed during lecture on spina bifida
  20. Define

    clavicle
    collarbone
  21. Define

    scapula
    shoulder blade
  22. Define

    acromion process
    extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder

    *in anatomical terms: process means projection or outgrowth
  23. Define

    sternum
    breastbone
  24. Define

    xiphoid process
    lower portion of the sternum
  25. Define

    humerus
    upper arm bone
  26. Define

    ulna and radius
    • lower arm bones
    • ulna is pinky finger side
    • radius is thumb side
  27. Define

    olecranon process
    projection at the upper end of the ulna that forms the bony point of the elbow

    *looks like a little square tab on backside
  28. Define

    carpal bones

    *clap with carpal
    wrist bones
  29. Define

    metacarpal bones
    hand bones

    • *clap with carpal
    • *remember meta- means after, beyond, change so these bones are after the carpal or wrist bones
  30. Define

    phalanges
    Singular: phalanx
    finger and toe bones
  31. Define

    pelvic bone, hip bone

    and name the parts
    • made up of three bones fused together
    • ischium
    • ilium
    • pubis
  32. Define

    ischium
    lower, rear portion of pelvic bone, on which one sits
  33. Define

    ilium
    upper, wing-shaped part on each side of pelvic bone
  34. Define

    pubis
    anterior portion of the pelvic bone
  35. Define

    acetabulum
    large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur
  36. Define

    femur
    upper leg bone
  37. Define

    tibia and fibula
    • lower leg bones
    • tibia is the larger one toward inner leg (large toe side)
    • fibula is smaller one toward outer leg (smallest toe side)
  38. Define
    patella
    plural: patellae
    kneecap
  39. Define

    tarsal bones
    ankle bones

    *tap with tarsal
  40. Define

    metatarsal bones
    foot bones

    • *tap with tarsal
    • *remember meta- means after, beyond, change so these bones come after the tarsal or ankle bones
  41. Define

    calcaneus
    heel bone
  42. Define

    articular cartilage
    smooth layer of firm, fibrous tissue covering the contacting surface of joints

    *think, pertaining to articulate [To join or connect together loosely to allow motion between the parts]
  43. Define

    meniscus
    crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee

    **meniscus = crescent-shaped
  44. intervertebral disk
    cartilaginous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine

    **inter - between vertebral - pertaining to vertebrae
  45. Define

    pubic symphysis
    cartilaginous joint at which two pubic bones come together

    **symphysis means: a union, meeting point of any two structures
  46. Define

    synovia
    fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities

    *the main function is to serve as a lubricant, also helps to nourish the cartilage
  47. Define

    bursa
    plural: bursae
    fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another

    **contains synovial fluid/membrane and found in areas subject to friction
  48. Define

    ligament
    flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another bone at a joint
  49. Define

    tendon
    band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
  50. Define

    aponeurosis
    strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscle to bone
  51. Define

    skeletal muscles
    also know as striated muscles

    voluntary muscles

    *remember rhabd/o  + my/o
    • attached to bones by tendons
    • make body movement possible
    • skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and working in pairs
    • **muscles only pull, they do not push, so need a pair to pull in opposite directions - on pull by a muscle, then a counter-pull by the other muscle
    • they are also known as voluntary muscles because we have control over these muscles
  52. Define

    smooth muscles
    also known as unstriated muscles

    involuntary muscles

    *remember lei/o  +  my/o
    • located in internal organs
    • such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract
    • they are also called involuntary muscles because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntarily
  53. Define
    cardiac muscle
    known as myocardium
    • forms most of the wall of the heart
    • its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat
  54. Define

    abduction
    moving away from the midline

    *think if someone is taken away they are abducted
  55. Define

    adduction
    moving toward the midline

    *think - adding something back close to the body
  56. Define

    inversion
    turning inward

    • *think inversion-inward
    • *when talking about the feet it is the sole of the foot that is turned inward, not the ankle
  57. Define

    eversion
    turning outward

    • *think eversion-external
    • *when talking about the feet it is the sole of the foot that is turned outward, not the ankle
  58. Define

    extension
    movement in which a limb is placed in a straight position

    *think of extending the limb
  59. Define

    flexion
    movement in which a limb is bent

    *think of flexing the limb
  60. Define

    pronation
    movement that turns the palm down

    *this comes from the prone directional term and refers directly to the hands which need their own direction defined since they can move independently of the rest of the body
  61. Define

    supination
    • movement that turns the palm up

    *this comes from the supine directional term and refers directly to the hands which need their own direction defined since they can move independently of the rest of the body
  62. Define

    rotation
    turning [a limb] around its own axis

    *think of making windmills with your arms
  63. carp/o
    Combining Form

    • carpals
    • wrist bones

    *remember clap with carpals
  64. clavic/o
    clavicul/o
    Combining Form

    • clavicle
    • collarbone
  65. cost/o
    Combining Form

    rib
  66. crani/o
    Combining Form

    • cranium
    • skull
  67. femor/o

    *the 'u' changes to an 'o' in the word root femor/o -- pay attention to correct spelling of these words
    Combining Form

    • femur
    • upper leg bone
  68. fibul/o
    perone/o
    Combining Form

    • fibula
    • lower leg bone
    • [smaller one on the outside - pinky toe side]
  69. humer/o
    Combining Form

    • humerus
    • upper arm bone
  70. ili/o
    Combining Form

    ilium

    • *pay attention to spelling - this is not the ileum part of the intestine
    • **this is the anterior portion of the pelvic bone
  71. ischi/o

    **do not confuse with isch/o (deficiency, blockage)
    Combining Form

    • ischium
    • lower rear portion [of pelvic bone] on which one sits
  72. lumb/o
    Combining Form

    • loin
    • lumbar region of the spine
  73. mandibul/o
    Combining Form

    • mandible
    • lower jawbone
  74. maxill/o
    Combining Form

    • maxilla
    • upper jawbone
  75. patell/o
    Combining Form

    • patella
    • kneecap
  76. pelv/i
    pelv/o

    *Note, the combining vowels 'i' and 'o' are both used with the word root pelv/ -- pay attention to correct spelling of these words
    Combining Form

    • pelvis
    • pelvic bone
  77. phalang/o
    Combining Form

    • phalanges
    • finger or toe bones
  78. pub/o
    Combining Form

    pubis
  79. rachi/o
    Combining Form

    • spine
    • vertebral column
  80. radi/o
    Combining Form

    • radius
    • lower arm bone
    • thumb side
  81. sacr/o
    Combining Form

    • sacrum
    • *five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones, below lumber vertebrae and above the coccyx
  82. scapul/o
    Combining Form

    • scapula
    • shoulder blade
  83. spondyl/o
    vertebr/o
    Combining Form

    vertebra
  84. stern/o
    Combining Form

    • sternum
    • breastbone
  85. tars/o
    Combining Form

    • tarsals
    • ankle bones

    *remember tap with tarsals
  86. tibi/o
    Combining Form

    • tibia
    • lower leg bone
    • *larger bone, inside leg, big toe side
  87. uln/o
    Combining Form

    • ulna
    • lower arm bone
    • *pinky finger side
  88. aponeur/o
    Combining Form

    aponeurosis
  89. arthr/o
    Combining Form

    joint
  90. burs/o
    Combining Form

    bursa (cavity)
  91. chondr/o
    Combining Form

    cartilage
  92. disk/o
    Combining Form

    intervertebral disk
  93. menisc/o
    Combining Form

    meniscus (crescent)
  94. synovi/o
    Combining Form

    synovia, synovial membrane
  95. ten/o
    tend/o
    tendin/o
    Combining Form

    tendon
  96. ankyl/o
    Combining Form

    • crooked
    • stiff
    • bent
  97. kinesi/o
    Combining Form

    • movement
    • motion
  98. kyph/o
    Combining Form

    • hump
    • increased convexity of the spine
  99. lamin/o
    Combining Form

    • lamina
    • thin, flat plate or layer

    *think of laminate for your countertop
  100. lord/o
    Combining Form

    • bent forward
    • increased concavity of the spine
  101. myel/o
    Combining Form

    • bone marrow
    • spinal cord (see chap. 15)
  102. my/o
    myos/o
    Combining Form

    muscle
  103. oste/o
    Combining Form

    bone
  104. petr/o
    lith/o
    Combining Form

    stone
  105. scoli/o
    Combining Form

    crooked, curved
  106. inter-
    prefix

    between
  107. supra-
    prefix

    above
  108. syn-
    sym-
    prefix

    • together
    • joined
  109. -asthenia
    suffix

    weakness
  110. -clast
    -clasis
    -clasia
    suffix

    break
  111. -desis
    suffix

    • surgical fixation
    • fusion
  112. -physis
    suffix

    growth
  113. -schisis
    suffix

    • split
    • fissure

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