Lipid classification

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  1. What are the three groups of lipids:
    Three groups of lipids: structural (membrane), storage, and other.
  2. Lipid structural features:
    • Backbones: sphingosine or glycerol
    • FA: hydrocarbons
    • Complex rings: cholesterol and derivatives, cofactors, singnaling molecules, vitamins.
  3. Define storage lipids:
    Storage lipids: contain fatty acids and oils, built to make them stable (i.e. inert) and easy to dissasemble.
  4. Define structural lipids:
    Structural lipids: contains phospholipids and sterols, built to provide stability and mobility for membrane components.
  5. Define "other" lipids:
    Other: contains cofactors, electron carriers, pigments, hydrophobic anchors, hormones, intracellular messangers. They are built to provide special functions.
  6. What storage lipid is noted? describe the structure:
    • Triacylglycerol:
    • It has a glycerol backbone and three acyls(FA).
    • Ester bonds.
    • Hydrophobic, nonpolar.
    • Cleaved by lipases: hydrolize the ester linkages.
  7. What are the three classes of membrane lipids?
    glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols.
  8. define glycerophospholipids:
    two FA joined to glycerol
  9. define sphingolipids:
    one FA + one fatty amine (sphingosine)
  10. define sterols:
    Rigid core of 4 fused hydrocarbon rings. No backbone.
  11. two types of membrane lipids:
    phospholipids and glycolipids.
  12. what are waxes?
    esters of long chain saturated/unsaturated FA + long chain of alcohols.
  13. describe phospholipids:
    some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids with a polar head group + FA.
  14. describe glycolipids:
    some sphingolipids with a simple sugar instead of phosphate.
  15. Structure of glycerophospholipids: what is ita parent molecule?
    • C1 FA
    • C2 FA
    • C3 phosphate + polar head group (alcohol)
    • parent molecule: phosphatidic acid.
  16. Structure of sphingolipids: what is its parent molecule?
    • parent molecule: ceramide
    • 3-carbon backbone.
    • Sphingosine + long chain FA + polar head group.
    • Note: head group joined by phosphodiester or glycosidic linkage.
    • FA is attched to an amide at C2.
  17. What are the three classes of sphingolipids and what do they differ in?
    • Differ in head groups.
    • Classes: sphingomyelins, glycosphingolipids, and gangliosides.
  18. Define sphingomyelins:
    • class of sphingolipids.
    • head group = phosphocholine.
    • this class is a phospholipid.
  19. Define glycosphingolipids,
    • class of sphingolipids.
    • mostly on outter face of plasma membrane
    • Head groups have one or more sugars on C1 ceramide.
    • cerebrosides: one sugar on ceramide
    • globosides: more than one sugar on ceramide
  20. define gangliosides:
    • class of sphingolipids.
    • polar head groups = oligosaccharides
    • one or more N-acetylneraminic acids
  21. Galactolipids:
    • dfferent from glcosphingolipids; no nitrogen
    • no phosphate
    • 1,2 diacylglycerol + 1 or 2 galactose at C3
  22. How to degrade phospholipids and sphingolipids
    • phospholipases cleave phospholipids. product is lysophospholipid, function is signaling.
    • Different signaling molecules due to 4 different phospholipases
  23. What is a sterol, structure, roles:
    • nucleus: 4 rings. 
    • role as structure.
    • cholesterol is amphipathic. alters membrane fluidity. at high temp, decreases fluidity, at low temp, increases fluidity.
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Lipid classification
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