firsthand records of events, theories, opinions, or actions (published or unpublished documents, recordings, or artifacts) must be contemporary to the event they are describing.
Challenges of using primary sources?
sometimes only information on an even was written well after the event (100 years). NOT a primary source
may not always be accurate if describing a person's point of view
ofteb ambiguous and difficult to analyze
What is a fact?
information based on real, provable events or situations
What is an opinion?
beliefs based on personal judgements, rather than on indisputable facts.
What is a bias?
opinions or beliefs that affect a person's ability to make fait, unclouded judgements or decisions.
What are stereotypes?
oversimplified opinions (that do not account for individual differences) about an entire group of people or things
What is narrative text?
Tells a story or relates a chain of events
What is an expository passage?
introduces or explains a subject, gives groundwork information that is necessary for understanding later ideas, or analyzes information objectively
What is technical writing?
passes along precise information, usually about a specific topic, and usually in a formal or semi-formal style. teaches reader how to use an object.
What is persuasive writing?
writing that tries to get a reader to agree with the author
What is a topic?
the general subject matter covered by the work
What is a main idea?
The work's specific message, a.k.a. the reason the text was written
What do supporting details do?
explain the main idea
What is a theme?
subjects that written work frequently touch upon. ideas/concepts that the writer comes back to frequently
What is a topic sentence?
a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph or of a larger text structure. Usually starts a paragraph
What are summary sentences?
generally appear near the end of a paragraph and sum up the point of the earlier text, driving the message home. They may also draw a conclusion based on a topic. also useful when closing a piece of text
What is a logical conclusion?
conclusion that is consistent with the ideas in the text even if the reader doesn't agree. Does not need to be factual or true (assume everything you read is true then decide on a conclusion)
What is an inference?
a logical conclusion that is not actually written in the text. deduced by the reader from what is written in the text.
What are the four categories of writing purposes?
What is historical context?
The time and place the piece was written will influence the work in some way. Every piece of information has historical context.
What is important when reading a work from a different culture?
Identify when something is writen from a different cultural standpoint and identify how the standpoint is different from your own
What is text structure?
the way in which a given text is organized
Five different types of text structures?
What is a problem-solution text structure?
presents the problem in one paragraph and the solution in another paragraph
What is a comparison-contrast text structure?
writer presents two different cases and makes the reader think about the differences
What is a cause-effect text structure?
writer presents an action first, and then describes the effects that result from that action
What is a descriptive text structure?
Describes a person, place, thing, or idea
What is a sequence text structure?
when things are listed by numbered lists or bullet points
what is a word's context?
surrounding words that help reveal the word's meaning