Chapters 4-5

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Anonymous
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266056
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Chapters 4-5
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2014-03-11 21:47:05
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Radiation Protection
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Joan's class
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  1. Who named the cell the basic building block?
    Robert Hook
  2. Which cells are less sensitive to radiation?
    Neurons and muscle cells
  3. What will happen if a cell is damaged by ionizing radiation?
    the components involved in molecular synthesis will be damages beyond repair and the cell will function abnormally or die
  4. What are cells made of?
    Protoplasm, the building material of all living things
  5. Protoplasm is made from 24 elements but primarily
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  6. Organic compounds are formed by combining carbon to:
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Phosphorous and sulfur
  7. What are the 4 major classes of organic compounds?
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Nucleic Acid
  8. Proteins make up what % of the cell?
    15%
  9. Proteins are formed by
    combining amino acids into long chair like molecules
  10. Protein synthesis involves
    22 amino acids
  11. The order and arrangement of _______ determines the characteristic of the cell
    Protein
  12. ________ and _______ organize the amino acids into certain sequences to form
    • Chromosomes and genes
    • Structural protein found in muscle
    • Enzymes-proper cell functioning
    • Antibodies
  13. Carbohydrates make up what % of the cell?
    1%
  14. What is the cells primary energy source?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Provides short term energy
    • Provides fuel for cell metabolism
  15. The structural parts of cell walls/intercellular material is made up of
    Carbohydrates
  16. What % of the cell is made up of lipids?
    2%
  17. Lips are made up of
    a molecule of glycerine and 3 molecules of fatty acids
  18. What is an intermediate product of glucose metabolism?
    lipids
  19. What are water insoluble organic macromolecules and are present in all body tissue?
    Lipids
  20. What are the other functions of the lipids?
    • Structural part of cell membrane
    • Long-term energy storage
    • Insulates the body
    • Supports/protects organs
    • Essential for growth
    • Assist in digestive process
  21. What % of the cell do nucleic acids compose?
    1%
  22. What is a complex macromolecule made up of smaller structure nucleotide that is formed from a nitrogen-containing organic base, a five carbon sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule?
    Nucleic acid
  23. What are the two times of nucleic acid?
    • Ribonucleic acid RNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
  24. DNA is composed of
    Forms
    Linked by
    • two long sugar phosphate chains
    • double helix
    • pairs of nitrogenous bases
  25. DNA bases are composed of complimentary bases. ________ bonds attach bases to each other
    • Hydrogen bonds
    • Adenine to thymine
    • Cytosine to guanine
  26. Where is DNA located?
    In the nucleus
  27. What does DNA do?
    • Replication
    • Regulates cell activity to direct protein synthesis
    • Regulates sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis-determines cell characteristics
  28. DNA regulates cellular activity indirectly by
    transmitting genetic info by reproducing itself to form mRNA
  29. mRNA resembles ______ and contains
    • 1/2 of a DNA molecule and contains ribose instead of deoxyribose
    • Uracil replaces thymine
  30. Where are enzymes produced?
    In the ribosomes
  31. What do enzymes do?
    • Cause vital chemical reactions to take place
    • Mend damaged molecules
    • Capable of repairing the cell from radiation damage
  32. What do chromosomes look like and what are they composed of?
    • Tiny rod-shaped bodies
    • DNA
  33. How many chromosomes does a normal human have?
    In a somatic cell
    In a germ cell
    • 46
    • 23
  34. Each chromosome dividing into segments is called a
    gene
  35. Each gene contains information to
    • Direct cytoplasm activities
    • Control growth
    • Develop cell
    • Transmit hereditary information
  36. How many base pairs are there in the human genome?
    2.9 billion
  37. Inorganic compounds do not
    contain carbon
  38. Inorganic compounds include
    • Acids (hydrogen containing compounds)
    • Bases (contain OH molecule)
    • Salts (electrolytes)
    • Water-Primary
  39. What % of the human body is made up of water?
    80-85%
  40. Medium chemical reactions occur in
    Water
  41. Mineral salts (electrolytes) maintain
    They are
    They create
    Important in
    • correct proportion of water in cell (osmosis)
    • necessary for proper cell function
    • of energy
    • Nerve impulse conduction (ions)
  42. Cell membrane in made up of
    • lipids and proteins
    • Frail structure
    • Barricade to protect
  43. All the organelles live in the
    cytoplasm of the cell
  44. What are the 4 types of organelles that live in the cytoplasm?
    • Tiny tubules (tubes)
    • Vesicles (cavities of sacs)
    • Granules (particles)
    • Fibrils (fibers or strands)
  45. A network of tubules that communicates with the extra cellular environment. Known as the highway system of the cell
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  46. The _________ is a system of tubes and sacs near the nucleus. It concentrates packages, and transports through cell membrane
    Golgi complex/apparatus
  47. What does the golgi complex concentrate, transport and package?
    enzymes and hormones
  48. A large bean shaped part of the cell that produces energy from cellular activity. Known as the powerhouse of the cell
    Mitochondria
  49. What does the mitochondria produce?
    ATP
  50. Small sacs that contain enzymes for digestion. Referred to as suicide bags or the cell's garbage disposal. Radiation exposure may cause rupture
    Lysosomes
  51. What controls cells division and biochemical reactions?
    The nucleus
  52. What are the two types of cell division?
    • Mitosis-somatic
    • Meiosis-Germ
  53. A parent cells produces
    two daughter cells that are identical to the parent
  54. What are the phases of cell division?
    • Interphase
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  55. What are the phases of interphase?
    • G1-pre DNA synthesis
    • DNA synthesis
    • G2-Post DNA interval
    • M-Actual mitosis
  56. Nucleus enlarges
    Chromotids become visible
    Nucleuar membrane disappears
    Centrioles migrate to opposite sides of cell
    Prophase
  57. Mitotic spindle forms between centrioles
    Each chromosome lines up at center of cell attached by its centromere to the mitotic spindle
    Metaphase
  58. The duplicate centromeres migrate to opposite directions along the spindle
    Anaphase
  59. Chromatids undergo changes by uncoiling and becoming long and loosely spiraled
    Nuclear membrane reforms
    Two nuclei appear
    Telphase
  60. Meisos reduces number of
    chromosomes in each daughter cell by half the number in the parent cell
  61. Grandaughter cells each contain
    23 chromosomes
  62. Females produce _____
    1 ootid (viable egg) and 3 polar bodies (nonfunctional same nuclear material but little cytoplasm-cell dies
  63. Males produce
    4 spermatids

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