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Who named the cell the basic building block?
Which cells are less sensitive to radiation?
Neurons and muscle cells
What will happen if a cell is damaged by ionizing radiation?
the components involved in molecular synthesis will be damages beyond repair and the cell will function abnormally or die
What are cells made of?
Protoplasm, the building material of all living things
Protoplasm is made from 24 elements but primarily
Organic compounds are formed by combining carbon to:
- Phosphorous and sulfur
What are the 4 major classes of organic compounds?
- Lipids (fats)
- Nucleic Acid
Proteins make up what % of the cell?
Proteins are formed by
combining amino acids into long chair like molecules
Protein synthesis involves
22 amino acids
The order and arrangement of _______ determines the characteristic of the cell
________ and _______ organize the amino acids into certain sequences to form
- Chromosomes and genes
- Structural protein found in muscle
- Enzymes-proper cell functioning
Carbohydrates make up what % of the cell?
What is the cells primary energy source?
- Provides short term energy
- Provides fuel for cell metabolism
The structural parts of cell walls/intercellular material is made up of
What % of the cell is made up of lipids?
Lips are made up of
a molecule of glycerine and 3 molecules of fatty acids
What is an intermediate product of glucose metabolism?
What are water insoluble organic macromolecules and are present in all body tissue?
What are the other functions of the lipids?
- Structural part of cell membrane
- Long-term energy storage
- Insulates the body
- Supports/protects organs
- Essential for growth
- Assist in digestive process
What % of the cell do nucleic acids compose?
What is a complex macromolecule made up of smaller structure nucleotide that is formed from a nitrogen-containing organic base, a five carbon sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule?
What are the two times of nucleic acid?
- Ribonucleic acid RNA
- Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
DNA is composed of
- two long sugar phosphate chains
- double helix
- pairs of nitrogenous bases
DNA bases are composed of complimentary bases. ________ bonds attach bases to each other
- Hydrogen bonds
- Adenine to thymine
- Cytosine to guanine
Where is DNA located?
In the nucleus
What does DNA do?
- Regulates cell activity to direct protein synthesis
- Regulates sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis-determines cell characteristics
DNA regulates cellular activity indirectly by
transmitting genetic info by reproducing itself to form mRNA
mRNA resembles ______ and contains
- 1/2 of a DNA molecule and contains ribose instead of deoxyribose
- Uracil replaces thymine
Where are enzymes produced?
In the ribosomes
What do enzymes do?
- Cause vital chemical reactions to take place
- Mend damaged molecules
- Capable of repairing the cell from radiation damage
What do chromosomes look like and what are they composed of?
- Tiny rod-shaped bodies
How many chromosomes does a normal human have?
In a somatic cell
In a germ cell
Each chromosome dividing into segments is called a
Each gene contains information to
- Direct cytoplasm activities
- Control growth
- Develop cell
- Transmit hereditary information
How many base pairs are there in the human genome?
Inorganic compounds do not
Inorganic compounds include
- Acids (hydrogen containing compounds)
- Bases (contain OH molecule)
- Salts (electrolytes)
What % of the human body is made up of water?
Medium chemical reactions occur in
Mineral salts (electrolytes) maintain
- correct proportion of water in cell (osmosis)
- necessary for proper cell function
- of energy
- Nerve impulse conduction (ions)
Cell membrane in made up of
- lipids and proteins
- Frail structure
- Barricade to protect
All the organelles live in the
cytoplasm of the cell
What are the 4 types of organelles that live in the cytoplasm?
- Tiny tubules (tubes)
- Vesicles (cavities of sacs)
- Granules (particles)
- Fibrils (fibers or strands)
A network of tubules that communicates with the extra cellular environment. Known as the highway system of the cell
The _________ is a system of tubes and sacs near the nucleus. It concentrates packages, and transports through cell membrane
What does the golgi complex concentrate, transport and package?
enzymes and hormones
A large bean shaped part of the cell that produces energy from cellular activity. Known as the powerhouse of the cell
What does the mitochondria produce?
Small sacs that contain enzymes for digestion. Referred to as suicide bags or the cell's garbage disposal. Radiation exposure may cause rupture
What controls cells division and biochemical reactions?
What are the two types of cell division?
A parent cells produces
two daughter cells that are identical to the parent
What are the phases of cell division?
What are the phases of interphase?
- G1-pre DNA synthesis
- DNA synthesis
- G2-Post DNA interval
- M-Actual mitosis
Chromotids become visible
Nucleuar membrane disappears
Centrioles migrate to opposite sides of cell
Mitotic spindle forms between centrioles
Each chromosome lines up at center of cell attached by its centromere to the mitotic spindle
The duplicate centromeres migrate to opposite directions along the spindle
Chromatids undergo changes by uncoiling and becoming long and loosely spiraled
Nuclear membrane reforms
Two nuclei appear
Meisos reduces number of
chromosomes in each daughter cell by half the number in the parent cell
Grandaughter cells each contain
Females produce _____
1 ootid (viable egg) and 3 polar bodies (nonfunctional same nuclear material but little cytoplasm-cell dies