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What are they considered?
Natural or unnatural?
- artificial fungi
What classifies the other fungi as fungi?
What are the special characteristics of Deuteromycetes?
Specific characteristics in terms of their sexual reproduction; what their sexual structures look like
- ex: ascomycetes: ascus
- Basidiomycetes: basidium
- Zygomycetes: zygospores
- Chytrids: motile flagella
they have no sexual reproductive structures; asexual
Why can't we see sexual reproductive structures in them?
- a. Maybe they don’t have it
- b. Maybe they never evolved
- c. Maybe they lost their reproductive structures or the ability to do so
- d. Maybe, we haven’t found them yet; not studied yet
- e. Maybe the sexual structures are produced by the same fungus; we just haven’t correlated them
Most of the fungi that belong in this group are __.
For classification, what should be looked at?
However, we can't classifiy why?
- if coenocytic: zygomycete (maybe)
- if there are poors in the walls, it may be ascomycete
because we have no reproductive structures yet
- spoil food
- attack peanuts and leather
- cause penicillium
- cause diseases
Spoilage of Food
- What determines whether the spoilage is a fungus?
- What do they contain and what are they?
conidiophores: 1. Spherical; finger like projections; right at the tip, the cell divides--> chain of spores (same as ascomycetes)
- what can it do to cells and act as?
- __ must be monitored.
- __ are a group of closely related compounds; have __.
- What can it do to your lungs?
- 1. A. flavus and parasiticus produces aflatoxins
- a. Can directly kill cells of liver and act as carcinogens
- b. Crops must be monitored due to risk of this
- c. Aflatoxins are a group of closely related compounds; have five rings
- d. Can also do a number on your lungs through a series of diseases called Aspergillosis
1. The __ is much more open than in aspergillis.
How does division occur?
b. __: one of the most widespread antibiotics used
- Tip divides and you get a spore and keep dividing-->chain of spores
i. Discovered in 1928 by accident by __
Explain the experiment.
2. Not all produce penicillin
3. Making some ___
a. Process starts out using __ and finishes with __
- Alexander Fleming
- Plates contaminated by spores in the air
- 1. In the vicinity of the fungus, the bacterium wasn’t growing
- cheeses (soft cheeses)
i. Cause diseases
a. These diseases are a problem in people with what?
3. Fungus that grows in basements and walls: __
- Lung diseases
- whose immune systems are compromised
What does Aspergillus sp. do?
cause food spoilage
attack many types of organic molecules
used industrially to make various compounds (soy sauce, citric acid, etc)
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produce aflatoxins, potent hepatoxins
A few species are animal/ human pathogens, e.g. lung diseases called aspergilloses, endocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle)
What does Penicillium do?
- food spoilage (esp. citrus fruits)
- produces antibiotics, especially penicillin
- Used to produce some of the soft cheese
- Penicillium roqueforti: bleu, stilton, gorgonzola, Roquefort
Other deuteromycetes may cause health problems.
Tinea: various types of ringworm
Lung lesions, e.g. coccidioidomycosis, North American and South American blastomycosis