Bio Exam II. 5 Deuteromycetes

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  1. What are they considered?

    Natural or unnatural?
    • artificial fungi
    • unnatural
  2. What classifies the other fungi as fungi? 

    What are the special characteristics of Deuteromycetes?
    Specific characteristics in terms of their sexual reproduction; what their sexual structures look like

    • ex: ascomycetes: ascus
    • Basidiomycetes: basidium
    • Zygomycetes: zygospores
    • Chytrids: motile flagella

    they have no sexual reproductive structures; asexual
  3. Why can't we see sexual reproductive structures in them?
    • a.       Maybe they don’t have it
    • b.      Maybe they never evolved
    • c.       Maybe they lost their reproductive structures or the ability to do so
    • d.      Maybe, we haven’t found them yet; not studied yet
    • e.       Maybe the sexual structures are produced by the same fungus; we just haven’t correlated them
  4. Most of the fungi that belong in this group are __. 

    For classification, what should be looked at?
    - How?

    However, we can't classifiy why?

    • hyphae
    • if coenocytic: zygomycete (maybe)
    • if there are poors in the walls, it may be ascomycete

    because we have no reproductive structures yet
  5. Human relevance
    • spoil food
    • attack peanuts and leather
    • cause penicillium
    • cause diseases
  6. Spoilage of Food

    - What determines whether the spoilage is a fungus?
    - What do they contain and what are they?


    conidiophores: 1. Spherical; finger like projections; right at the tip, the cell divides--> chain of spores (same as ascomycetes)
  7. Attacks peanuts
    - species

    - what can it do to cells and act as?
    - __ must be monitored.
    - __ are a group of closely related compounds; have __. 
    - What can it do to your lungs?
    • 1.      A. flavus and parasiticus produces aflatoxins
    • a.       Can directly kill cells of liver and act as carcinogens
    • b.      Crops must be monitored due to risk of this
    • c.       Aflatoxins are a group of closely related compounds; have five rings
    • d.      Can also do a number on your lungs through a series of diseases called Aspergillosis
  8.  Cause penicillium
    1.      The __ is much more open than in aspergillis. 

    How does division occur? 

    b.      __: one of the most widespread antibiotics used
    • conidiophore
    • Tip divides and you get a spore and keep dividing-->chain of spores
    • Penicillin
  9. Penicillin
    Discovered in 1928 by accident by __ 
    Explain the experiment.
    2.      Not all produce penicillin
    3.      Making some ___
    a.       Process starts out using __ and finishes with __
    • Alexander Fleming
    • Plates contaminated by spores in the air
    • 1.      In the vicinity of the fungus, the bacterium wasn’t growing
    • cheeses (soft cheeses)
    • bacteria
    • fungi
  10.                                                               i.      Cause diseases
    1.      __
    2.      __
    a.       These diseases are a problem in people with what?
    3.      Fungus that grows in basements and walls: __
    • Ringworm
    • Lung diseases
    • whose immune systems are compromised
    • Stachybotrys
  11. What does Aspergillus sp. do?
    cause food spoilage

    attack many types of organic molecules

    used industrially to make various compounds (soy sauce, citric acid, etc)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produce aflatoxins, potent hepatoxins

    A few species are animal/ human pathogens, e.g. lung diseases called aspergilloses, endocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle)
  12. What does Penicillium do?
    • food spoilage (esp. citrus fruits)
    • produces antibiotics, especially penicillin
    • Used to produce some of the soft cheese
    • Penicillium roqueforti: bleu, stilton, gorgonzola, Roquefort

    Penicillium camemberti: Camembert, brie
  13. Other deuteromycetes may cause health problems. 

    Like what?
    Tinea: various types of ringworm

    Lung lesions, e.g. coccidioidomycosis, North American and South American blastomycosis

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Bio Exam II. 5 Deuteromycetes
2014-03-16 05:08:45
Plant Kingdom
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