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One of the __ groups
Most are __; some are __ (usually on plants)
all produce branching hyphae that are septate (endwalls)
What are the differences between basidiomycetes and ascomycetes in terms of theirs septa?
- 1. Different from ascomycetes because the pore in basidiomycetes is plugged up as opposed to ascomycetes, whose pore allowed movements from one place to another
- a. Nuclei can’t move from one place to another
Cell wall: __
Explain the vegetative hyphae of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.
i. Basic Vegetative hyphae in ascomycetes were monokaryotic (haploid)
- 1. As an ascocarp was developing, there was a dikaryotic hyphae, both of which the nuclei were haploid
- ii. In basidiomycetes, they are mostly dikaryotic, two haploid nuclei
- 1. Normal vegetative hyphae growing are going to be dikaryotic
Basically, what is the major difference in the vegetative hyphae of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes?
difference is in the nuclear condition of the cell
a. How many __ nuclei
i. If a cell that has two hyphae nuclei divides, what will happen to ensure that both daughter cells have two haploid nuclei?
Two haploid (n+n)
Explain the special division of basidiomycetes.
- a. Little pertruberance of one cell and one of the nuclei travels up that pertruberance, which continues to elongate
- b. It then flops over so the tip is bent over, touching the side of the cell; the nuclei are dividing at the same time (mitosis)
- c. The nuclei that are produced by it amount to four; they rearrange themselves in the cell so one is at the end of the tip where an end wall comes down, two are at the other side, and one is on the other side
- d. Another endwall formsà two cells
The way hyphae grow in every fungus is always __.
__ is characteristic of basidiomycete hyphae.
Unique to this group are spores called __ produced on a __.
Also called __.
at the tip of the cell
What are the analogies of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes?
- i. Basidium is analogous to asci of ascomycetes
- ii. Basidiospore is analogous to the ascospore
- 1. Basidiocarp is analogous to ascocarp
What occurs in the basidium?
karyogamy, meiosis, etc.
Locate the spores in both the ascus and basidia. What is the production number?
ascus: spores inside adn you end up with eight ascospores
basidia: spores on outside and four are formed
i. Asci were formed on __; basidiospores usually form on larger structure called __
Examples of basidiomycetes.
- i. Bracket (shelf) fungi
- ii. Mushrooms
- iii. Coral fungi
- iv. Stinkhorns
- v. Puffballs
- vi. Earth stars
- Bird’s nest fungi
- Underside has __.
- What lines the underside is a __.
How do they mature?
one basidium after another, they don't all mature at the same time
In ascomycetes, explain the hymenial layer.
In basidiomycetes, explain the hymenial layer.
- 1. In Ascomycetes, the asci in the hymenial layer were separated by sterile hyphae
- 2. In Basidiomycetes, this is not the case
Other mushrooms have __ instead of __.
i. Sometimes,a __ can be produced from __, not a basidiocarp
What is the diagrammatic representation of basidial and basidiospore development.
karyogamy--> zygote nucleus
meiosis I--> formation of sterigma (end cell continues to enlarge during mitosis)
meiosis II--> basidiospores
Life cycle of a typical mushroom
germination of basidiospore (has a haploid mycelium -->
establishment of dikaryon by fusion of haploid hyphae -->
vegetative mycelium (button stage) -->
universal veil -->
partial veil, stipe, and volva (remnant of universal veil)-->
annulus and stipe (which is larger)-->
developing basidium -->
germination of basidiospore