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Definition of group according to aronson
- Two or More people who interact with each other and are interdependent.
- *their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
Definition of group according to baron & byrne
A collection of persons who are perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit to some degree
Basic features of groups) 3 roles of groups
-differentiation of function
-formal or informal assignment
Basic features of groups) what does status refer to?
Groups often confer or withhold status as a way to control member behavior
4 basic features of groups
Basic features of groups) norms (3)
- prescriptive norms
-adherence to norms is basic requirement of membership
What are prescriptive norms
Tells group members how to behave
What are proscriptive norms
Tells group members how not to behave
Basic features of groups) cohesiveness
Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote the liking between members
effect of presence of others on our performance (3)
-makes performance worse
-depends on arousal and task complexity
Social facilitation) cockroach study (2)
-roaches ran simple maze faster when other roaches were present
-roaches ran complex mazes more slowly when other roaches were present
What is social facilitation?
Tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks in the presence of others
3 sources of social facilitation
Which sources of social facilitation does research support?
Evaluation apprehension and distraction conflict
Reductions in performance when working collectively in a group compared to when working independently.
Ability to monitor individual input into task predicts individual performance (2)
-if individual input can be monitored, social facilitation
-if individual input is not monitored, social loafing
What is coaction?
Person a and b do their own work
What is additive group task
Person a and person b combine their work into one
What is process loss?
Any aspect of group interaction inhibits good problem solving
Information findings) discussion advantage for shared information is reduced when: (3)
-task has a correct answer
-groups have a participative leader
-unshared information is particularly diagnostic
A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
What is one main antecedent of group think?
Antecedents of group think- group structure (5)
-very similar group members
Symptoms of group think (5)
-illusion of invulnerability
-perceived high moral ground
- -increased pressures toward uniformity
- *group members censor discrepant views
-illusion of unanimity
Consequences of group think (4)
-defective decision making
-incomplete survey of alternatives
-failure to account for risks
-failure to work out contingency plans
**Often leads to bad decisions
3 ways to guard against group think
-consult widely with outsiders
-leaders explicitly encourage criticism
-establish norms of critical review of all decisions
Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
What creates polarization) persuasive arguments (3)
-sheer number of arguments heard in support of an opinion lead to more extreme opinion
-some arguments provide new information
-validates our own positions
What creates polarization) social comparison (2)
Polarization sometimes occurs even if no arguments are presented and people are just exposed to others views
- -2 step process
- * people discover more support for their position than expected
- *sets up a new, more extreme group norm
- *If believing X was good then believing triple X is better
What makes a good leader) great person theory
- Key personality traits make a person a good leader
- *intelligence, extroversion, socially skilled, family size, height
- *not extremely predictive of effective leadership
What makes a good leader) contingency theory
Leader effectiveness depends on task vs. relationship orientation and the amount of control leader has over the group.
What makes a good leader) contingency theory- what is task orientation leader
Concern more with task at hand than with workers' feelings and relationships
What makes a good leader) contingency theory- What is relationship orientation leader?
Concern with worker feelings and relationships
What makes a good leader) contingency theory- when do task oriented leaders perform better?
When control is low or high
What makes a good leader) contingency theory- when do relationship oriented leaders are more effective?
When control is moderate
Conflict and cooperation, individuals and groups) social dilemma
A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chose by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
Conflict and cooperation, individuals and groups) what is social dilemma used to study?
- Cooperation and conflict
- **prisoner's dilemma game and Deutch & Krauss trucking game
Conflict and cooperation: what if people's goals conflict? (3)
-in short term, people often choose to compete
-if partners adapt tit for tat strategy, cooperation can develop over time
-communication between parties can help IF members focus on developing trust rather than making threats
Resolving conflict through negotiation) negotiation
- Form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counter offers are made
- *solution occurs only when both parties agree
Resolving conflict through negotiation) when are negotiations most successful?
- When members make trade offs according to their different interests(integrative solution)
- *the trick is to identify integrative solution
- **easiest to find solution is when parties trust one another and have open communication