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Tell me about Charlemagne.
In 800 AD, during the medieval period, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor of Europe.
Tell me about William the Conqueror.
After the church split into Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox, William the Conqueror defeated King Harold of England in 1066 and started feudalism.
Tell me about the Crusades.
Eleanor of Aquitaine and her son, Richard the Lion-Hearted, fought the Turks for Jerusalem during the time of the Crusades, which occurred from 1095-1291.
Tell me about the Magna Carta.
English King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215, limiting the king's power. Later, England's King Edward III claimed to be king of France and began the Hundred Years' War in 1337.
Tell me about the Hundred Years' War.
During the Hundred Years' War, Joan of Arc and King Charles the VII led the French to defeat England at the Battle of Orleans. In the late 1340s, fleas on rats carried the Plague which killed one out of three Europeans.
Tell me about the Renaissance.
During the Renaissance period, from 1350 to 1600, Da Vinci was a famous inventor, Shakespeare was a famous playwright, Michelangelo was a famous artist, and Copernicus was a famous scientist.
Tell me about the Reformation.
In 1517, Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation by printing the Ninety-Five Theses that made Pope Leo X excommunicate him. Later, John Calvin joined the Reformation.
Tell me about European Exploration.
Between the late 1400s and the mid-1500s, Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, Amerigo Vespucci sailed to the Americas, Balboa crossed Central America to the Pacific, Magellan's crew sailed around the globe, and Coronado explored the American Southwest.
Tell me about the age of absolute monarchs.
Between the 1500s to 1700s, Henry VIII of England, Louis XIV of France, Philip II of Spain, Peter the Great of Russia, and Frederick the Great of Prussia ruled during the age of absolute monarchs.
Tell me about the history of Russia.
Vladimir I brought Christianity to Russia in the 900s. In the late 1400s, Czar Ivan the Great built the Kremlin in Moscow. Catherine the Great expanded and westernized Russia in the late 1700s.
Tell me about the French Revolution.
In 1789, the French Revolution began when citizens stormed the Bastille and fought for the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Later, during the Reign of Terror, the aristocrats' heads were removed by the guillotine.
Tell me about the Battle of Waterloo.
Napoleon Bonaparte of the French Empire was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by British General Wellington soon after the War of 1812 in the United States.
Tell me about the Industrial Revolution.
Watt's steam engine, Cartwright's power loom, and Whitney's cotton gin spurred the Industrial Revolution that began in the 1760s.
Tell me about World War I leaders.
Clemenceau of France, Lloyd George of England, Nicholas II of Russia, Wilhelm II of Germany, and Wilson of the U.S. were leaders during World War I, which started in 1914 and ended in 1918.
Tell me about World War I countries.
During World War I, Great Britain, France, and Russia were Allies and fought against Austria-Hungary and Germany, which were called the Central Powers. In 1917, the U.S. entered the war assisting the Allies.
Tell me about how World War II began.
WWII began in 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland. Two engagements that helped the U.S. win the Pacific front were the Battle of Midway and dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.
Tell me about World War II leaders.
World War II AXIS leaders were: Hitler of Germany, Tojo of Japan, and Mussolini of Italy. WWII ALLY leaders were: Churchill of England, Roosevelt, Eisenhower, and MacArthur of the U.S., and Stalin of USSR.
Tell me about the United Nations.
In 1945, after the League of Nations failed to prevent World War II, American President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Churchill, and USSR Premier Stalin began the United Nations.
Tell me about the Korean War.
In 1950, General Douglas MacArthur led UN troops to stop communist North Korea from capturing all of South Korea during the Korean War.
Tell me about the Vietnam War.
In 1965, President Johnson sent U.S. troops to stop communist North Vietnam from capturing all of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Tell me about the end of the Cold War.
In the 1980s, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and U.S. President Ronald Reagan worked together to end the Cold War, lessen big government, and strengthen the conservative movement.
Tell me about the fall of communism.
In 1989, the communist dictators began to fall in Eastern Europe when Soviet President Gorbachev refused to back them up with military force.
Tell me about the Gulf War.
In 1990, President Bush sent troops to the Persian Gulf to expel Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein from Kuwait during the Gulf War.
Tell me about apartheid ending.
In 1994, South African President de Klerk allowed free elections. Nelson Mandela became the first black president, demonstrating apartheid was ending.