HIV and AIDS
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Lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow induced to replicate by antigen binding, usually followed by helper T-cell interaction in lymphoid tissues. Its progeny (clone members) form plasma cells and memory cells.
Antibody-producing "machine"; produces huge numbers of antibodies (immunoglobulins) with the same antigen specificity. An effector B cell.
An effector CD4 T cell central to both humoral and cellular immunity. It stimulates production of cytotoxic T cells and plasma cells to fight off invaders, active macrophages and acts both directly and indirectly by releasing cytokines. Three major subsets (TH1,TH2, and TH17).
Helper T cell (TH)
An effector CD8 T cell. Activation usually requires helper T cell involvement. Its speciality is killing virus-invaded body cells and cancer cells; also involved in rejection of foreign tissue grafts.
Cytotoxic T cell (TC)
Slows or stops activity of immune system. Important in controlling autoimmune diseases; several different populations exist.
Regulatory T cell (TReg)
Descendant of activated B cells or any class of T cell; generated during initial immune response (primary response). May exist in the body for years after, enabling it to respond quickly and efficiently to subsequent infections or encounters with same antigen.
Any of several cell types (dendritic cell, macrophage, B cell) that engulfs and digests antigens that it encounters, then presents parts of them on its plasma membrane (bound to an MHC protein) for recognition by T cells bearing receptors for the same antigen. This function, antigen presentation, is essential for activation of T cells and normal mediated responses. Macrophages and dendritic cells also release chemicals (cytokines) that activate many other immune cells.
Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
Substance capable of provoking an immune response. Typically a large, complex molecule (e.g. protein or modified protein) not normally present in body.
Protein produced by B cell or by plasma cell. Antibodies produced by plasma cells are released into body fluids (blood, lymph, saliva, mucus, etc.), where they attach to antigens. This causes complement fixation, neutralization, precipitation, or agglutination, which "marks" the antigens for destruction by phagocytes and complement.
Released by TC cells. Perforins create large pores in the target cell's membrane, allowing entry of apoptosis-inducing granzymes.
Group of bloodborne proteins activated after binding to antibody-covered antigens or certain molecules on the surface of microorganisms; enhances inflammatory response and lyses some microorganisms.
Small proteins that act as chemical messengers between various parts of the immune system.
Congenital or acquired condition that impairs the production or function of immune cells or certain molecules, such as complement or antibodies.
Results from various genetic defects that produces a masked deficit of B and T cells.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome
Cripples the immune system by interfering with the activity of helper T cells.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Virus that causes AIDS and transmitted in body secretions.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
HIV virus multiplies steadily in the _?_ throughout most of the asymptomatic (without symptoms) period, which averages ten years in the absence of treatment.
Once inside the CD4 cell, HIV uses the viral enzyme _?_ to produce DNA from its (viral) RNA.
Amount of HIV virus per milliliter of blood.
True or false: HIV has a relatively high mutation rate.
Body produces antibodies and cytotoxic T cells that destroy its own tissues.
Results from autoimmunity; failure of self-tolerance
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