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How is sexual activity portrayed in Hinduism and Buddhism?
sexuality is way to gain cosmic unity
What do psychologists mean by the term “spectatoring?”
observing yourself have sex
What is vasocongestion?
swelling of organs with blood
What is myotonia?
Know who Masters and Johnson are, their model of human sexual response, and criticisms of their model.
observed sex in labs but only studied subjects who had orgasms; made orgasm the holy grail
Know Masters and Johnson’s findings regarding the correlation between subjective feelings or arousal and the physical signs of arousal.
people's mental perception of arousal doesn't always correlate with physical signs
Know the difference between Kaplan and Masters and Johnson’s models and where Kaplan’s model has been particularly useful.
- M&J: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
- Kaplan: desire, vasocongestion, orgasm (added the wanting to have sex)
Know examples of disorders of sexual desire, vasocongestion, and orgasm
- priapism: erection lasting more than 4 hours
- erectile dysfunction: difficulty attaining an erection
During what sexual activity do many women reach orgasm most quickly?
What do we mean by individual differences in sexual response?
responses vary among individuals and occurences
Know the differences between men and women’s sexual response.
men have refractory period
What differences in the sexual response appear to exist for parous vs. nulliparous females?
- in parous (mothers) the labia majora congest
- in nulliparous the labia majora flatten out
How does people’s perception of their sexual arousal correspond to the response of their sexual organs?
Where are the first signs of sexual arousal in females? What is it?
flushing, the blood rushes to different body parts
What is the first sign of sexual arousal in the male?
To what does the term sex flush refer?
blood rushing to chest and face
What occurs in the clitoris during the stages of sexual arousal?
vasocongests and grows
What is the physiological base of orgasm in the female? What about the male?
- female: clitoris
- male: head of penis
What do multiple orgasms in women depend upon?
continued stimulation and sexual interest
To what does the term refractory period refer? How does it change with age?
the period between orgasm and another erection; the younger the person the shorter the break
How do you locate the pubococcygeal muscle?
by inserting fingers inside the vagina
What is orgasmic inevitability?
the point of no return for orgasm
What stages do current sexual researchers suggest for the human sexual response?
desire, arousal, orgasm, satisfaction
What is psychosexual development?
how someone learns about their own sexual preferences
Know Freud’s psychosexual stages.
oral (sucking), anal (potty training), phallic (Oedipus), latency (hidden sexuality), genital
What is an erogenous zone?
an area that turns someone on
When do we establish our capacities for sensuality and intimacy?
What are common forms of sex related behavior during childhood?
masturbation and public nudity
What do sexologists recommend as suitable forms of sex education for young children?
books, nudity, show and tell
What is a nocturnal emission?
What do adolescents consider as having sex?
What does the data suggest about teenagers having sexual intercourse?
boys have no problems, girls before 15 have regret
What is the primary source of sex information for the majority of teenagers?
from friends and independent research
How do erotic fantasies and masturbation help adolescents?
makes them open to sexuality
What is dyadic withdrawal?
Are there differences in the patterns of same gender sexual activity between boys and girls?
boys do more (masturbation, homosexual and heterosexual)
What are recent trends in adolescent sexual activity regarding intercourse and outercourse?
intercourse decreased, oral increased, age of sex is younger
What about teen pregnancy rates and methods for preventing pregnancy?
teen pregnancy rises when abstinence only programs are implemented, when handed contraceptives and sex ed pregnancy decreases
What is typical of couples’ attitudes toward sex and marriage after several years?
sex is better and more free
What has Gottman identified as factors in a happy marriage?
- be familiar with partner
- appreciate partner
- turn to each other
- let your partner influence you
- solve the solvable problems
- help each other realize dreams
- create rituals
What do psychologists mean by “good enough sex?”
sex that is sufficient but not perfect every time
Who reports greater sexual satisfaction, married people or single people? What about younger or older individuals? What about people in monogamous relationships vs. those in non-monogamous relationships?
- married people are more satisfied
- older people are more satisfied
- people in relationships are more satisfied
What are some current trends in marriage?
- marrying as a teenager higher divorce rate
- single mothers marry less
- college educated people marry more
- people with divorced parents marry less
What is the current rate of divorce for first time marriages? What about 2nd marriages? What about 3rd marriages?
- 1st marriages: 41%
- 2nd marriages: 60%
- 3rd marriages: 73%
What is cohabitation? What effects does it have on later marriage? Why?
living together; more marriages fail because they are used to living together; "selection effect" not special
What does research on sexual fidelity indicate?
- 40% of marriages have infidelity
- men and women cheat (50%)
Describe the three types of extramarital affairs discussed in class. Which is most harmful to the marriage?
- Opportunistic: cheat because they're weak
- Romantic: don't love spouse, fall in love with someone else
- Commemorative: committed to spouse, but no feelings
What do we mean by equal status contact?
contact on equal basis by both parties
What do psychologists mean by propinquity?
the state of being close to someone
What are false stereotypes regarding aging and sexuality?
sex is for the young, the young enjoy it more
What is the relationship between aging and sexuality in men and women?
both enjoy sex more as they age