Skinners operant analysis

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Skinners operant analysis
2014-03-12 18:17:56

psych 15
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  1. operant analysis
    study of the ways in which behavior is acquired, maintained, or modified by its reinforcing or punishing consequences
  2. mentalism
    indicates learning theorists dissatisfaction with the use of concepts that cannot be objectively assessed or validated as explanatory devices in attempts to account for behavior
  3. Skinner's beliefs
    -our refusal to give up mentalistic explanations of behavior, which appear to help us understand our actions, hinder us on our quest

    -the study of personality involves a systematic examination of the idiosyncratic learning history and unique genetic background of the individual
  4. contingency
    relationship between a behavior and its consequences
  5. three-term contingency
    • 1. the events that precede the behavior
    • 2. the behavior itself
    • 3. the consequences following the behavior
  6. discrimination
    responding differently in the presence of different situational events
  7. stimulus control
    process in which a person's response is determined by a particular stimuli
  8. prompts
    antecendent stimuli that help initiate behaviors
  9. discriminitive stimulus
    presence signals an individuals to respond because he or she has learned previously that its presence lead to reinforcing consequences
  10. stimulus generalization
    responses made in the presence of a particular stimulus come to be made in the presence of other, similar stimulus
  11. positive reinforcement
    presentation of a positive reinforcer following a response, with teh result that the rate of that response increases
  12. negative reinforcement
    removal of an aversive stimulus following a response, with the result that the rate of that response increases
  13. positive punishment
    presentation of an aversive stimulus following a response, with the result that the rate of response decreases
  14. negative punishment
    removal of a positive reinforcer following a response, with teh result that the rate of that response decreases
  15. extinction
    reduction in behavior that occurs as a result of the failure to reinforce previously reinforced behavior
  16. shaping
    teaching a  new behavior by reinforcing responses that successively approximate it
  17. continuous reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which each response is followed by a reinforcer
  18. intermittent reinforcement
    schedule of reinforcement in which responses produce reinforcers only occasionally
  19. fixed-ratio
    fixed number of responses is required before a reinforcer is applied
  20. fixed interval
    the first response that occurs after a fixed amount of time has elapsed is reinforced
  21. self control processes (Definition)
    actions instigated by a person t alter the conditions that influence his or her behavior
  22. self-control processes
    • physical restraints
    • physical aids
    • changing the stimulus conditions
    • manipulating emotional conditions
    • performing alternative responses
    • positive self-reinforcement
    • self-punishment
  23. repertoire
    unique set of acquired behavior patterns
  24. behavior modification
    series of procedures that seek to change behavior through reliance on reinforcement principles or, less often, by reliance on punishment principles
  25. discrimination training
    procedure in which a personal learns to confine certain behaviors (e.g. eating) to certain situations (e.g. dining room table) and to refrain from performing the behavior in other situations (e.g. watching TV, talking on the phone, lying in bed reading)
  26. time out from reinforcement
    punishment procedure in which, contingent on undesirable behavior, access to positive reinforcers is withdrawn for a brief period
  27. response-cost
    loss of positive reinforcer after performing an undesirable behavior
  28. differential reinforcement of other behavior
    schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered at the end of a time interval during which no instances or unacceptable behavior occurred
  29. self-management procedures
    institutional members learn to manage or control their own behavior
  30. habit reversal
    making a response that is incompatible with an undesirable behavior
  31. token economy
    patients earn tokens for performing behaviors that are necessary if they are to live effectively
  32. aversive techniques
    punishment is used to stop an undesirable behavior
  33. shaping
    teaching a desirable behavior by reinforcing responses that successively approximate it
  34. Walden Two
    utopian society in which environments are structured to meet community members' needs