Chapter 9 zzzzzZZZZZZzzzzz

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  1. Endogenous circadian rhythms
    Self-generated cycle lasting about a day. Applies to sleeping, drinking, eating, urinating, hormone secretion, susceptibility to drugs, etc.
  2. Endogenous circannual rhythms
    Self-generated cycle lasting about a year.
  3. Free-running rhythm
    Circadian or circannual rhythm that is not being periodically reset by light or other stimuli.
  4. Jet lag
    Desynchronization of biological clock from traveling across time zones.
  5. Melatonin
    Produced by the pineal gland. Makes us sleepy.
  6. Pineal gland
    Small unpaired endocrine gland just posterior to the thalamus which produces melatonin 2-3 hours before bedtime.
  7. Superchiasmatic nucleus
    Part of the hypothalamus located just above the optic chiasm. Connected to the retina by a branch of the optic nerve. Constitutes the biological clock.
  8. Zeitgeber
    Cue that resets the biological clock. Exercise, noise, meals, and temperature are secondary to light.
  9. Polysomnograph
    Combination of electroencephalograph (EEG) and eye-movement records.
  10. Vegetative state
    Alternating between states of sleep and moderate arousal. No awareness of surroundings, no response to speech, no speech, or any purposeful activity. Show automatic response to pain (heart rate, breathing, sweating).
  11. Minimally conscious state
    Occasional, brief periods of purposeful action and limited speech comprehension.
  12. Brain death
    No sign of any brain activity and no response to any stimulus.
  13. Alpha waves
    Characteristic of relaxation, frequency of 8-12 per second.
  14. Sleep spindle
    Stage 2. 12-14 Hz during a burst lasting at least half a second. Results from interactions between cells in the thalamus and cortex.
  15. K-complex
    Stage 2. Sharp, high-amplitude wave. Can also be caused in other stages by sudden stimuli.
  16. Slow wave sleep (SWS)
    Stage 3 and 4. Slow, high-amplitude waves become more common (neuron activity highly synchronized). Wave lasts >0.5s in Stage 4.
  17. Paradoxical sleep
    Deep sleep in some ways and light sleep in others. Refers to REM sleep.
  18. REM sleep
    • Irregular, low-voltage fast waves indicate increased neural activity, but postural muscles such as those supporting the head are more relaxed than in any other stage. 
    • Heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure are more variable than S2-4.
    • Intermittent facial twitches and eye movements.
  19. Reticular formation
    Structure that extends from the medulla into the forebrain. Damage decreases arousal.
  20. Pontomesencephalon
    Part of the reticular formation that contributes to arousal.
  21. Locus coeruleus
    "dark blue space". Silent at most times but emits bursts of impulses at meaningful, emotionally arousing moments.
  22. Orexin (or hypocretin)
    NT released in the basal forebrain and other areas. Essential for staying awake.
  23. Basal forebrain
    Anterior and dorsal to the hypothalamus. Provides axons that extend throughout the thalamus and cerebral cortex. Releases excitatory acetylcholine.
  24. PGO waves
    • Waves of neural activity first in the pons, then in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, and lastly in the occipital cortex.
    • REM deprivation results in the emergence of PGO waves during S2-S4.
  25. Insomnia
    Inadequate sleep.
  26. Sleep apnea
    Impaired ability to breathe while sleeping.
  27. Narcolepsy
    Frequent periods of sleepiness during the day.
  28. Cataplexy
    Sudden muscle weakness, often triggered by strong emotions.
  29. Periodic limb movement disorder
    Repeated involuntary movement of the legs and sometimes the arms during sleep.
  30. REM behaviour disorder
    Move vigorously during REM sleep, seemingly acting out their dreams.
  31. Night terrors
    Experiences of intense anxiety from which a person awakens screaming in terror.
  32. Coma
    Extended period of unconsciousness caused by a head trauma, stroke, or disease.
  33. Caffeine
    Increases arousal by blocking receptors for adenosine, which accumulates during wakefulness and causes drowsiness.
  34. Activation-synthesis hypothesis
    The brain attempts to make a story out of haphazard input from various parts of the brain initiated by the PGO waves.
  35. Clinico-anatomical hypothesis
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Chapter 9 zzzzzZZZZZZzzzzz
2014-03-14 04:54:21
biological psychology

psych 261
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