CH6 NTD303

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  1. building blocks of protein
    amino acids
  2. link amino acids together to form proteins
    peptide bonds
  3. the only macronutrient that contains nitrogen
  4. proteins contain?
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  5. amino acids are composed of?
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • amino group
    • acid group
    • side group
  6. what differentiates one amino acid from another?
    side group
  7. amino acids that the body cant make and must be supplied by the diet
    essential amino acids
  8. body can make these
    nonessential amino acids
  9. put amino acids together to form?
  10. how do proteins differ from each other?
    by the amino acids contained in their structure and the order in which the amino acids are linked together
  11. is B A D diff than D A  B?
  12. how many amino acids are there? how many are essential? nonessential?
    • 20
    • 9
    • 11
  13. essential amino acids? TVTILLPM-H
    • histidine
    • isoleucine
    • leucine
    • lysine
    • methionine
    • phenylalnine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • valine
  14. how does a condensation reaction occurs?
    by removing a water molecule
  15. the linking of amino acids together in a variety of sequences through a peptide bond
    primary structure
  16. when the polypeptide chain twists or folds due to electrical attractions to give the protein its strength and rigidity
    secondary structure
  17. when the side groups attract or repel fluids and other amino acids based on its hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties
  18. chemical bonds
  19. electrical attractions
    secondary structure
  20. hydrophilic and hydrophobic
    tertiary structure
  21. two or more polypeptides
    quaternary structure
  22. composed of 4 polypeptide chains
  23. the interaction between 2 or more polypeptides
  24. protein digestion begins in the ?
  25. protein denaturation?
    • disruption of stability when exposed to heat
    • uncoils and looses shape
  26. ex of denaturation?
    ex hardening of egg when cooked
  27. during protein digestion what occurs in the mouth?
    chewing and moistening (physical changes)
  28. protein digestion in stomach?
    • Hydrochloric acid denatures protein
    • HCL converts pepsinogen to pepsin
  29. what happens in small intestine during protein digestion?
    • hydrolysis reactions
    • peptidase enzymes
  30. process that happens in small intestine?
    • polypeptides enter SI
    • pancreatic and intestinal proteases hydrolyze them into shorter peptide chains and amino acids
    • peptidase enzymes split most of the tri and di peptides into single amino acids
  31. HCL ___ proteins so that?
    • denatures
    • digestive enzymes can attack peptide bonds
  32. HCL converts what to what?
    pepsinogen to pepsin(its active form)
  33. what does pepsin do?
    cleaves large polypeptides into smaller polypeptides and amino acids
  34. during absorption, amino acids get transported into the ___ ___ where they get used for ___ or to ___ needed compounds
    • intestinal cells
    • energy
    • synthesize
  35. what  happens to amino acids that do no get used by the intestinal cells?
    get transported to the liver
  36. body does not like these types of proteins
    predigested proteins
  37. mistake of copying or error in sequence
    sequencing error
  38. ex of sequencing error?
    sickle cell anemia
  39. 8 roles of protein?
    • growth and maintenance
    • enzymes
    • hormones
    • regulators of fluid balance
    • acid-base regulators
    • transporters
    • antibodies
    • source of energy and glucose
  40. building blocks for most body structure
    growth and maintenance
  41. break down, build up and transform substances
  42. testosterone and insulin
  43. edema
    regulators of fluid balance
  44. attract hydrogen ions
    acid-base regulators
  45. swelling due to an excess of fluid in the tissue
  46. defend body against disease like flu
  47. starvation and insufficient carbohydrate intake
    source of energy and glucose
  48. other roles of protein?
    support growth, reproduction, immunity
  49. any amino acids in the __ __ __ __ __ _ can be used to make body proteins or other nitrogen containing compounds. or they can be stripped of their ___ and used for energy or stored as fat
    • protein turnover and amino acid pool
    • nitrogen
  50. zerio nitrogen balance?
    • healthy adults
    • happens where nitrogen intake = nitrogen output
  51. positive nitrogen balance?
    protein synthesis is greater than protein degradation (making more protein than your breaking down)
  52. where does positive NB occur?
    in growing infants, children, pregnant women, people recovering from illness
  53. negative nitrogen balance?
    protein degradation is greater than protein synthesis ( breaking down more protein than you take in )
  54. where does negative NB occur?
    burn victims, critically ill, infections, fever, people who are malnourished
  55. deamination results in 2 products?
    • ammonia
    • keto acid
  56. stripped of nitrogen containing amino group
    deaminating amino acids
  57. when amino acids are used for energy or to make ___ of fat, they must first be _____
    • glucose
    • deaminated
  58. base and excess quantities upset the blood's acid base balance
  59. the prevent an unbalance of acids and bases what happens?
    the liver combines ammonia with Co2 to make urea
  60. what are keto acids used for?
    nonessential amino acids by liver
  61. how does the liver make nonessential amino acids?
    from a keto acid if a nitrogen source is available
  62. urea gets released into the blood and the ____ are responsible for what?
    • kidneys
    • cleaning urea from the blood
  63. in liver disease, blood ammonia is?
  64. in kidney disease, blood urea is?
  65. the bodys principle vehicle for excreting unused nitrogen
  66. what happens when amino acids are deaminated?
    ammonia is released
  67. the live converts ammonia to ___ and the kidneys excrete ____
    • urea
    • urea
  68. by converting ammonia to urea, what does the body do?
    dispose of excess nitrogen
  69. high quality proteins are also known as?
    complete proteins
  70. provide enough of all the essential amino acids needed to support the body's work
    high quality proteins
  71. ___ ___ ___ do not provide all the essential amino acids
    low quality proteins
  72. 2 factors that influence protein qualities?
    • protein digestibility
    • protein's amino acid composition
  73. essential amino acids supplied in less than the amount needed to support protein synthesis is called?
    limiting amino acid
  74. ___ ___ depends on the protein source and other foods eaten with it
    protein digestibility
  75. digestibility of animal proteins is ?
    • high
    • 90-99%
  76. digestibility of plant proteins in ?
    • lower than anima
    • 70-90% for most, but 90% for soy and legumes
  77. complete plant proteins?
    • soy
    • quinoa
    • hemp seeds
  78. low quality proteins combined to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids?
    complementary proteins
  79. animal proteins and plant proteins are?
    high quality proteins
  80. marasmus?
    • protein energy malnutrition
    • *not getting protein or calories
  81. kwashiorkor?
    • severe protein deficiency
    • *gets enough calories, but no protein
  82. bloated bellies are a sign of?
  83. skin and bones appearance is a sign of?
  84. high protein diets can lead too?
    • heart disease
    • cancer
    • kidney disease
  85. what happens when protein increases?
    calcium excretion increases
  86. AMDR for protein?
    10 to 35%
  87. need for dietary protein?
    • source of essential amino acids
    • practical source of nitrogen
  88. health effects of protein ?
    • osteoporosis
    • weight control
  89. how to go from lb to kg?
    wt(lbs)/ 2.2 = wt (kg)
  90. how to determine amount of protein per person per day?
    wt(kg) x .8g =
  91. one ounce =
    7g of protein
  92. sources of animal protein?
    chicken, turkey, beef, pork, wild game, fish, shellfish, eggs dairy products
  93. sources of plant protein?
    beans and legumes, grains, tofu, tempeh, nuts and seeds
  94. potential risks associated with intake of?
    amino acid supplements
  95. protein powders?
    • muscle work vs protein supplements lead to atheletic performance
    • whey protein
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CH6 NTD303
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