Lifespan and Development

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Lifespan and Development
2014-03-13 15:11:50
Exam 2
Exam 2 review
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  1. Important Social Emotional Development
    • 3-4 months: Sensitivity to structure and timing of face-to-face interactions
    • 8-10 months: social referencing 
    • 3 years: Temperament develops with age
  2. Psycho-social Stages During Infancy and Toddlerhood:
    1st year?
    2nd year?
    • Basic trust vs. mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  3. Adjusting one's own state of emotional intensity
    • Emotional Self-Regulation 
    • Requires effortful control 
    • Improves over first year, with brain development
  4. Self Awarness
    • from birth 
    • aided by capacity for inter-modal perception
  5. Self recognition
    • Emerges end of second year 
    • Promoted by acting on environment and noting effecfts
  6. empathy
    • ability to "feel with" another person 
    • Aided by self-awareness and advancing cognitive, language and social skills
  7. Home Observation for Measurement of the Enivornment (HOME)
    • parental emotional and verbal responsiveness
    • Parental acceptance
    • organization of physical environment
    • Provision of appropriate play materials
    • Opportunities for variety in daily stimulation
  8. Vygotsky's Sociocultural theory
    • Private speech - important process to organize your thoughts (inner speech)
    • Zone of Proximal Development - help with task by an adult
    • Scaffolding -> Guided Participation (direct interaction is not needed) ("model")
  9. Erikson's Theory: Initiative vs. Guilt
    Middle childhood (age: )

    Initiative - new sense of purposefulness; eagerness to try new task; play permits trying out new skills; strides in conscience developement

    Guilt - overly strict superego or conscience, causing too much guilt
  10. emotional self-regulation
    • by age 3-4
    • aware of strategies for adjusting emotional arousal 
    • Affect by temperament of effortful control and warm parents who use verbal guidance
  11. emotional understanding
  12. Self concept
    • observable characteristics (apperance, behavior, possesions)
    • typical emotions (I like/I don't like)
    • Does not yet reference personality traits (shy)
  13. Self Esteem
    • self-judgements and associated feelings
    • influences are emotional experiences, future behavior, and long term psychological adjustment
  14. Child rearing style that consist of high in all areas
  15. Child rearing style that consist of low acceptance, involvement, and autonomy but high in control
  16. Child rearing style that consist of high in acceptance however too low/high in involvement, low in control and high in autonomy
  17. Child rearing style that consist of low in all categories
  18. Piaget's Theory: Concrete Operational Stage
    • Conservation: Decentration and reversibility
    • Classification
    • Seriation: Transitive inference
    • Spatial reasoning: cognitive maps
  19. Limitations of Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage
    Operations are concrete: applied to info children can perceive directly; work poorly with abstract ideas

    Continuum of acquisition: children master concrete operational tasks step by step
  20. Erkison's theory: Industry vs Inferiority
    • Middle Childhood (age: 6-11)
    • Industry: developing a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks; school provides many opportunities

    Inferiority: Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well; negative responses from family, teachers and peers can contribute to negative feelings
  21. Middle Childhood Emotional Development
    Self conscious emotions: governed by personal responsibility

    Emotional understanding: explains emotion using internal states; understands mixed emotions, empathy increases

    Emotional self-regulation: motivated by self-esteem and peer approval; emotional self-efficacy
  22. Middle Childhood changes in Self Concept
    more balanced, fewer all-or-none descriptions; social comparisons, real vs ideal self, references social groups, cultural variations
  23. Piaget's Theory: Formal Operational Stage
    • Adolescence: 11-18
    • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: problem solving based on a hypothesis, deducing logical, testable inferences, pendulum problem

    Propositional thought: evaluating the logic of verbal propositions without using real-world circumstances
  24. Erikson's theory: Identity vs. Role Confusion
    Adolescence: 11-18

    Identity: Defining who you are, what you value and direction in life; commitments to vocation, relationships, sexual orientation, ethic group, ideals; exploration, resolution of "identity crisis"

    Role Confusion: Lack of direction and self-definition - earlier psycho-social conflicts not resolved; society restricts choices; unprepared for challenges of adulthood
  25. Factors that influence behavior
    • maturity of moral reasoning
    • emotions: empathy, sympathy, guilt
    • temperament
    • cultural experiences and beliefs
    • moral identity
    • parenting practices
  26. Brain Development of Adolescent (cognitive advances and
    • Cognitive advances: attention, planning, integrating info, self-regulation 
    • Increased responsiveness to stress, pleasure and novelty
  27. Brain development (brain wise)
    • Synaptic pruning continues, expansion of synaptic
    • connections, myelination; Neurotransmitter response changes