Midterm study guide ntd205

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  1. identifiable or distinctive perceived quality of food or beverage, combo of senses
  2. interpreted sensations from taste buds and brain
  3. more about texture and how it feels
  4. interpreted sensations from olfactory
  5. recognition and appreciation of flavors
  6. 5 tastes humans experience?
    • sweet
    • sour
    • salty
    • bitter
    • umami
  7. what factors affect flavor perception?
    • temperature
    • consistency
    • presence of contrasting tastes
    • presence of fats
    • color
    • highly individualized preferences
  8. what factors affects our ability to taste?
    • age
    • health
    • medications
    • smoking
    • hereditary disorder
  9. any of a large group of aromatic plants whose leaves, stems or flowers are used as a flavoring
  10. any of a large group of aromatic plants whose bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries are used as flavoring
  11. ex of herbs?
    • green leafy products
    • oregano
    • parsely
    • rosemary
  12. ex of spices?
    • cinnamon
    • nutmeg
  13. what do we use to enhance flavor?
    • wines
    • beers
    • vinegars
    • condiments
    • soy sauce
    • liquors
  14. most common flavoring?
  15. what is the purpose of flavoring?
    it is used to enhance not mask
  16. USDA ___ all meat for human consumption
    • inspects
    • (inspection)
  17. grading?
  18. inspection?
  19. produced in limited quantities, well marbled, thick covered of firm fat
  20. most commonly used grade, well marbled, produces a tender and juicy product
  21. lacking in flavor and tenderness by comparison to others
    select and standard
  22. used in processed, ground of mfg items
    utility and cutter and canner
  23. what kind of products are utility and cutter and canner?
    • patties
    • canned meat products
  24. 4 types of grading meat?
    • prime
    • choice
    • select and standard
    • utility and cutter and canner
  25. controls the presence of microorganisms, pathogens, bacteria, parasites and insects
  26. irradiation does not make food?
  27. irradiation had never caused?
    cancer in humans
  28. t or f, irradiation does not alter appearance, texture or flavor
  29. surface dehydration and discoloration  due to moisture loss from below freezing temps
    freezer temps
  30. purpose of irradiation?
    • kills harmful bacteria
    • kills insects and parasites
    • inhibits food spoilage
  31. fat distribution in beef vs chicken?
    • beef it is marbled in muscle
    • chicken fat is stored under skin and is easier to cut off
  32. fat in beef?
    • small omega 3 and omega 6
    • saturated and cholesterol
    • small amts of mono and polyunsaturated
  33. fat in chicken?
    • more omega 6
    • some omega 3
    • small amts of saturated, mono and polysaturated, cholesterol
  34. nutrients found in beef?
    • protein (higher than chicken)
    • fat
    • cholesterol
    • sodium (higher than chicken)
    • vitamins B and C
    • minerals( calcium, selenium, fluoride, magnesium)
    • iron (higher than chicken)
  35. nutrients found in chicken?
    • protein
    • fat
    • cholesterol
    • vitamins A, E, K, B
    • minerals (sodium, iron, selenium, magnesium, potassium, calcium)
  36. 8 primal cuts of meat?
    • chuck
    • brisket/shank
    • rib
    • short plate
    • short loin
    • sirloin
    • flank
    • round
  37. subprimal cuts of chuck?
    • top blade
    • chuck roll
    • stew meat
    • ground beef
  38. subprimal cuts of brisket and shank?
  39. subprimal cuts of rib?
    • shank
    • over ready rib roast
    • rib eye roll
  40. subprimal of short plate?
    • skirt steak
    • short ribs
  41. subprimal of short loin?
    • porterhouse or T bone steaks
    • strip loin
  42. subprimal sirloin?
    • top sirloin butt
    • tri tip
  43. subprimal flank?
    flank steak
  44. subprimal round?
    • steamship round
    • top inside round
  45. ___ is the meat of the domesticated cattle
  46. simmered in water
  47. browned bones and veg in water
  48. fish bones or crustacean shells cooked slowly with veg in water
    fish or fumet
  49. veg and seasonings simmered in water with acidic liquid like vinegar or wine
    court bouillion
  50. mire poix?
    • 50% onions
    • 50% carrots
    • and celery by weight
  51. ingredients of basic stocks?
    • bones
    • mirepoix
    • seasonings
  52. thickening agents?
    • gelantinization of starch
    • slurry
    • roux
    • cornstarch
    • arrowroot
    • buerre manie
    • liason
    • emulsification
  53. clearer finish?
  54. thickens almost immediately?
  55. starch + cool liquid
  56. parts butter and flour used at end of cooking process to thicken quick
    buerre manie
  57. mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream to add richness and smoothness not to thicken
  58. degreasing?
    take fat off the top
  59. liquid quanitity is dramatically decreased through evaporation
  60. safety issues with cooked cold soups?
    • cross contamination
    • potential PHF/TCS food
    • chill quickly
  61. safety issues with uncooked cold soups?
    • bacteria and enzymes are not destroyed by cooking
    • prepare small batches close to serving time
  62. how to make stocks and sauces healthy?
    add water
  63. process in which the fat globules in whole milk are reduced in size and permanently dispersed throughout the liquid
  64. process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a short period of time and is then packaged in sterile containers under sterile conditions
  65. 4 processing techniques for milk?
    • pasteurization
    • ultra-pasteurization
    • UHT
    • homogenization
  66. process of heating milk to s sufficiently high temperature for a sufficient length of time to destroy pathogenic bacteria
  67. process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a very short time
    ultra pasteurization
  68. cultured milks?
    • buttermilk
    • sour cream
    • crème fraiche
    • yogurt
  69. butter?
    fat portion from milk which seperates
  70. margarine?
    a non dairy product manufactured from animal or vegetable fats
  71. what enzyme in natural cheese is commonly found in the stomach of a calf?
  72. characteristics of cheese?
    • develop a natural rind
    • the higher the moisture content the softer and more perishable a cheese will be
  73. fresh or unripened cheese?
    • aka green cheese
    • mild and creamy
    • 40-80% moisture
    • highly perishable
  74. ex of fresh or unripened cheese?
    • cream cheese
    • feta
    • marscapone
    • mozzarella
    • ricotta
  75. ex of soft cheeses?
    • brie
    • boursin
    • camembert
    • taleggio
  76. ex of semi soft cheeses?
    • cabrales
    • fontina
    • gogonzola
    • gouda
    • havarti
    • stilton
  77. ex of firm cheeses?
    • cheddar
    • emmenthaler
    • gruyere
    • jarlsberg
    • manchego
    • Monterey jack
    • provolone
  78. cheeses that have been carefully aged for extended periods of time
    hard cheese
  79. with this cheese, the best flavor comes from grating as needed
    hard cheese
  80. ex of hard cheeses?
    • asiago
    • grana padano
    • parmesan
    • pecorino romano
  81. problems of cooking with cheese?
    • because of its high protein content, cheese can melt into a tough, stringy mess
    • heating can cause cheese to curdle or separate
  82. why would someone avoid dairy?
    • lactose intolerance
    • milk allergy
    • personal choice
    • vegan
    • taste preference
  83. what key nutrients do vegetarians need to pay attention to if they avoid dairy?
    • protein
    • calcium
    • B12
  84. non dairy foods that provide protein and calcium?
    • green veggies
    • seeds,beans
    • nuts
    • molasses
    • figs
    • soy, tofu
    • salmon and sardines
    • OJ
  85. dairy milk alternatives?
    • soy
    • rice
    • potato
    • hemp
    • coconut
    • almond
    • oat
  86. cheese alternatives?
    • soy based
    • parmesan
    • singles (processed)
  87. combination of aged and green cheese with emulsifiers and flavoring added
    processed cheese
  88. natural cheese are a ?
    product of their environment
  89. made from a variety of animal milks
  90. how does processed cheese compare nutritionally to natural cheese?
    • contains less natural cheese
    • often has vegetable oils and milk solids added
  91. a combination of bones, vegetables, seasionings and liquids
  92. based to a soup
  93. a thickened liquid used to flavor and enhance other foods
  94. made by slowly cooking fish bones or crustacean shells and vegetables without coloring them, then simmering them in water with seasonings for a short time
  95. the principal means used to thicken sauces
  96. puree of fruits and vegetables as their base
  97. used in sauces in modern food prep
    flavored oils
  98. the dramatic reduction and concentration of a stock
  99. made of milk and a roux
  100. made of white stock and a roux
  101. béchamel scalded cream and a few drops of lemon juice
    cream sauce
  102. made directly in the pan, a liquid thickened with a roux
    pan gravy
  103. sauces served with sautéed meats
    pan sauces
  104. sauces made from vegetable juices
  105. a thin, flavorful liquid served in a pool beneath the main food
  106. made using basil and pine nuts pounded by hand with a heavy pestle in mortar
  107. stock + thickener + seasonings
  108. brown sauce
  109. single portion cuts coming from the subprimal cuts
    fabricated cuts
  110. the parts of a butchered animal that are considered inedible by human beings
  111. béchamel is thickened by?
  112. veloute is thickened by
  113. espagnole is thickened by
  114. tomato sauce is thickened by
  115. hollandaise is thickened by?
    egg yolks
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Midterm study guide ntd205
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