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identifiable or distinctive perceived quality of food or beverage, combo of senses
interpreted sensations from taste buds and brain
more about texture and how it feels
interpreted sensations from olfactory
recognition and appreciation of flavors
5 tastes humans experience?
what factors affect flavor perception?
- presence of contrasting tastes
- presence of fats
- highly individualized preferences
what factors affects our ability to taste?
- hereditary disorder
any of a large group of aromatic plants whose leaves, stems or flowers are used as a flavoring
any of a large group of aromatic plants whose bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries are used as flavoring
ex of herbs?
- green leafy products
what do we use to enhance flavor?
- soy sauce
most common flavoring?
what is the purpose of flavoring?
it is used to enhance not mask
USDA ___ all meat for human consumption
produced in limited quantities, well marbled, thick covered of firm fat
most commonly used grade, well marbled, produces a tender and juicy product
lacking in flavor and tenderness by comparison to others
select and standard
used in processed, ground of mfg items
utility and cutter and canner
what kind of products are utility and cutter and canner?
- canned meat products
4 types of grading meat?
- select and standard
- utility and cutter and canner
controls the presence of microorganisms, pathogens, bacteria, parasites and insects
irradiation does not make food?
irradiation had never caused?
cancer in humans
t or f, irradiation does not alter appearance, texture or flavor
surface dehydration and discoloration due to moisture loss from below freezing temps
purpose of irradiation?
- kills harmful bacteria
- kills insects and parasites
- inhibits food spoilage
fat distribution in beef vs chicken?
- beef it is marbled in muscle
- chicken fat is stored under skin and is easier to cut off
fat in beef?
- small omega 3 and omega 6
- saturated and cholesterol
- small amts of mono and polyunsaturated
fat in chicken?
- more omega 6
- some omega 3
- small amts of saturated, mono and polysaturated, cholesterol
nutrients found in beef?
- protein (higher than chicken)
- sodium (higher than chicken)
- vitamins B and C
- minerals( calcium, selenium, fluoride, magnesium)
- iron (higher than chicken)
nutrients found in chicken?
- vitamins A, E, K, B
- minerals (sodium, iron, selenium, magnesium, potassium, calcium)
8 primal cuts of meat?
- short plate
- short loin
subprimal cuts of chuck?
- top blade
- chuck roll
- stew meat
- ground beef
subprimal cuts of brisket and shank?
subprimal cuts of rib?
- over ready rib roast
- rib eye roll
subprimal of short plate?
subprimal of short loin?
- porterhouse or T bone steaks
- strip loin
- steamship round
- top inside round
___ is the meat of the domesticated cattle
browned bones and veg in water
fish bones or crustacean shells cooked slowly with veg in water
fish or fumet
veg and seasonings simmered in water with acidic liquid like vinegar or wine
- 50% onions
- 50% carrots
- and celery by weight
ingredients of basic stocks?
- gelantinization of starch
- buerre manie
thickens almost immediately?
starch + cool liquid
parts butter and flour used at end of cooking process to thicken quick
mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream to add richness and smoothness not to thicken
take fat off the top
liquid quanitity is dramatically decreased through evaporation
safety issues with cooked cold soups?
- cross contamination
- potential PHF/TCS food
- chill quickly
safety issues with uncooked cold soups?
- bacteria and enzymes are not destroyed by cooking
- prepare small batches close to serving time
how to make stocks and sauces healthy?
process in which the fat globules in whole milk are reduced in size and permanently dispersed throughout the liquid
process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a short period of time and is then packaged in sterile containers under sterile conditions
4 processing techniques for milk?
process of heating milk to s sufficiently high temperature for a sufficient length of time to destroy pathogenic bacteria
process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a very short time
- sour cream
- crème fraiche
fat portion from milk which seperates
a non dairy product manufactured from animal or vegetable fats
what enzyme in natural cheese is commonly found in the stomach of a calf?
characteristics of cheese?
- develop a natural rind
- the higher the moisture content the softer and more perishable a cheese will be
fresh or unripened cheese?
- aka green cheese
- mild and creamy
- 40-80% moisture
- highly perishable
ex of fresh or unripened cheese?
- cream cheese
ex of soft cheeses?
ex of semi soft cheeses?
ex of firm cheeses?
- Monterey jack
cheeses that have been carefully aged for extended periods of time
with this cheese, the best flavor comes from grating as needed
ex of hard cheeses?
- grana padano
- pecorino romano
problems of cooking with cheese?
- because of its high protein content, cheese can melt into a tough, stringy mess
- heating can cause cheese to curdle or separate
why would someone avoid dairy?
- lactose intolerance
- milk allergy
- personal choice
- taste preference
what key nutrients do vegetarians need to pay attention to if they avoid dairy?
non dairy foods that provide protein and calcium?
- green veggies
- soy, tofu
- salmon and sardines
dairy milk alternatives?
- soy based
- singles (processed)
combination of aged and green cheese with emulsifiers and flavoring added
natural cheese are a ?
product of their environment
made from a variety of animal milks
how does processed cheese compare nutritionally to natural cheese?
- contains less natural cheese
- often has vegetable oils and milk solids added
a combination of bones, vegetables, seasionings and liquids
a thickened liquid used to flavor and enhance other foods
made by slowly cooking fish bones or crustacean shells and vegetables without coloring them, then simmering them in water with seasonings for a short time
the principal means used to thicken sauces
puree of fruits and vegetables as their base
used in sauces in modern food prep
the dramatic reduction and concentration of a stock
made of milk and a roux
made of white stock and a roux
béchamel scalded cream and a few drops of lemon juice
made directly in the pan, a liquid thickened with a roux
sauces served with sautéed meats
sauces made from vegetable juices
a thin, flavorful liquid served in a pool beneath the main food
made using basil and pine nuts pounded by hand with a heavy pestle in mortar
stock + thickener + seasonings
single portion cuts coming from the subprimal cuts
the parts of a butchered animal that are considered inedible by human beings
béchamel is thickened by?
veloute is thickened by
espagnole is thickened by
tomato sauce is thickened by
hollandaise is thickened by?