Card Set Information
A&P Manual: pgs. 481-494
What is the digestive process?
putting food in your mouth
break down of food into smaller pieces
What are the two forms of digestion?
DEFINE: chemical digestion
any digestion using chemicals
DEFINE: mechanical digestion
any digestion with movement
movement of food toward anus
What are the two forms of propulsion?
involuntary propulsion or wavelike movement of food
bringing food/nutrients into body (blood stream)
eliminate waste from body
The digestive process takes ______ to _____ to complete
24 to 48 hrs.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract or alimentary canal is a continuous muscular tube that extends from ________ to __________ and is approximately _________ feet long.
mouth to anus
The oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and anus are made of ______________.
Stratified squamous epithelium
The stomach, small intestine and large intestine are made of _________________.
Simple columnar epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium is good for?
Simple columnar epithelium is good for?
Ingestion occurs in the _____________.
Mechanical digestion occurs in the __________, ___________ and __________.
Chemical digestion occurs in the ________, ___________ and ___________.
Propulsion occurs everywhere in the digestive system except the _________.
Where does peristalsis begin?
Absorption occurs in the __________, ___________ and ___________.
Where does the majority of digestion and absorption occur?
an acidic paste of food and stomach acid
Which organs are shared by the digestive and respiratory systems?
Oral cavity and Pharynx
Defecation occurs in the ___________ and _____________.
What salivary gland is located inferior to the ear and produces 70% of saliva?
What are the different layers of the gut from deep to superficial?
What is the tunica mucosa made of?
Simple columnar epithelium
What is the tunica muscularis made of?
The thickening of the circular muscular layer that control the flow of food thru the digestive tract
What are the names of the two sublayers of the tunica muscularis?
What is the tela submucosa made of?
dense connective tissue
What is the tunica serosa made of?
simple squamous epithelium
Where is the esophagus located?
posterior to heart & trachea
passes thru hole in diaphragm
How does the esophagus differ from the basic gut plan?
It has both skeletal and smooth muscle (swallowing-voluntary, peristalsis-involuntary)
Where is the stomach located?
left upper abdomen below diaphragm
What are the 3 functions of the stomach?
1. Store ingested food until it can be emptied into small intestine
2. Secrete hydrochloric acid (HCL) and enzymes that begin protein digestion and destroy bacteria
3. Pulverize ingested food and mix with gastric secretions to produce a thick liquid mixture known as chyme
The esophagus connects to what part of the stomach?
What are the folds of the tunica mucosa called that allow the stomach to stretch?
The duodenum of the small intestine connects to what part of the stomach?
What is the part of the stomach between the fundus and pylorus called?
The cardiac sphincter is located between the _________ and the _________ of the stomach.
The pyloric sphincter is located between the ___________ of the stomach and the _____________ of the small intestine.
How does the stomach protect the GI tract?
It releases acid which kills bacteria.
It makes a thick layer of mucus which protects the stomach from the acid.
What are the 3 divisions of the small intestine?
What are the 4 organs that empty into the duodenum?
Where is the pancreas located?
Posterior to the stomach
What are the endocrine & exocrine functions of the pancreas?
: Produce Insulin & Glucagon
: Produce digestive enzymes and Sodium Bicarbonate
What do digestive enzymes do?
Chemically digest food particles
What does sodium bicarbonate do?
Neutralizes acid from the stomach
Where is the liver located?
Upper right peritoneal cavity and tapers to the midclavicular line below the diaphragm on the left side
What are the functions of the liver?
Detoxifies wastes and drugs
Stores glycogen (glucose) and vitamins
Makes bile, which emulsifies fat
Where is the gall bladder located?
Inferior to the liver
What is the function of the gall bladder?
Stores and concentrates bile from liver
What are circular folds?
Large fold of the small intestine
What is the purpose of circular folds in the small intestine?
Slows the passage of food
Increase surface area for absorption
The circular folds of the small intestine are covered with __________.
tiny, finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption. Tiny capillaries found in the villi absorbed nutrients into the blood stream
What are the divisions of the large intestine?
What are the divisions of the colon?
The _________ is the beginning of the large intestine and has a worm-like extension known as the vermiform appendix attached to it.
The ascending colon is lateral to the __________ psoas major muscle.
The transverse colon is inferior to the ___________.
The descending colon is lateral to the ___________ psoas major muscle.
The sigmoid colon is located between the _______________________ and __________.
Straight, terminal portion of the large intestine
What is the primary function of the large intestine?
Absorption of remaining H
O, salts and vitamins