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2014-03-13 14:09:36
A&P Manual: pgs. 481-494
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  1. What is the digestive process?
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion
    • Propulsion
    • Absorption
    • Defecation
  2. DEFINE: ingestion
    putting food in your mouth
  3. DEFINE: digestion
    break down of food into smaller pieces
  4. What are the two forms of digestion?
    • Mechanical
    • Chemical
  5. DEFINE: chemical digestion
    any digestion using chemicals
  6. DEFINE: mechanical digestion
    any digestion with movement
  7. DEFINE: propulsion
    movement of food toward anus
  8. What are the two forms of propulsion?
    • Swallowing
    • Peristalsis
  9. DEFINE: swallowing
    voluntary propulsion
  10. DEFINE: peristalsis
    involuntary propulsion or wavelike movement of food
  11. DEFINE: absorption
    bringing food/nutrients into body (blood stream)
  12. DEFINE: defecation
    eliminate waste from body
  13. The digestive process takes ______ to _____ to complete
    24 to 48 hrs.
  14. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract or alimentary canal is a continuous muscular tube that extends from ________ to __________ and is approximately _________ feet long.
    • mouth to anus
    • 30 feet
  15. The oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and anus are made of ______________.
    Stratified squamous epithelium
  16. The stomach, small intestine and large intestine are made of _________________.
    Simple columnar epithelium
  17. Stratified squamous epithelium is good for?
  18. Simple columnar epithelium is good for?
  19. Ingestion occurs in the _____________.
    Oral cavity
  20. Mechanical digestion occurs in the __________, ___________ and __________.
    • Oral cavity
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
  21. Chemical digestion occurs in the ________, ___________ and ___________.
    • Oral Cavity
    • Stomach
    • Small Instestine
  22. Propulsion occurs everywhere in the digestive system except the _________.
  23. Where does peristalsis begin?
  24. Absorption occurs in the __________, ___________ and ___________.
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
  25. Where does the majority of digestion and absorption occur?
    Small Intestine
  26. DEFINE: chyme
    an acidic paste of food and stomach acid
  27. Which organs are shared by the digestive and respiratory systems?
    Oral cavity and Pharynx
  28. Defecation occurs in the ___________ and _____________.
    • Large Intestine
    • Anus
  29. What salivary gland is located inferior to the ear and produces 70% of saliva?
    Parotid gland
  30. What are the different layers of the gut from deep to superficial?
    • Tunica Mucosa
    • Tela Submucosa
    • Tunica Muscularis
    • Tunica Serosa
  31. What is the tunica mucosa made of?
    Simple columnar epithelium
  32. What is the tunica muscularis made of?
    Smooth muscle
  33. DEFINE: sphincters
    The thickening of the circular muscular layer that control the flow of food thru the digestive tract
  34. What are the names of the two sublayers of the tunica muscularis?
    • Circular layer
    • Longitudinal layer
  35. What is the tela submucosa made of?
    dense connective tissue
  36. What is the tunica serosa made of?
    simple squamous epithelium
  37. Where is the esophagus located?
    • posterior to heart & trachea
    • passes thru hole in diaphragm
  38. How does the esophagus differ from the basic gut plan?
    It has both skeletal and smooth muscle (swallowing-voluntary, peristalsis-involuntary)
  39. Where is the stomach located?
    left upper abdomen below diaphragm
  40. What are the 3 functions of the stomach?
    • 1. Store ingested food until it can be emptied into small intestine
    • 2. Secrete hydrochloric acid (HCL) and enzymes that begin protein digestion and destroy bacteria
    • 3. Pulverize ingested food and mix with gastric secretions to produce a thick liquid mixture known as chyme
  41. The esophagus connects to what part of the stomach?
  42. What are the folds of the tunica mucosa called that allow the stomach to stretch?
    gastric rugae
  43. The duodenum of the small intestine connects to what part of the stomach?
  44. What is the part of the stomach between the fundus and pylorus called?
  45. The cardiac sphincter is located between the _________ and the _________ of the stomach.
    • esophagus
    • fundus
  46. The pyloric sphincter is located between the ___________ of the stomach and the _____________ of the small intestine.
    • pylorus
    • duodenum
  47. How does the stomach protect the GI tract?
    • It releases acid which kills bacteria.
    • It makes a thick layer of mucus which protects the stomach from the acid.
  48. What are the 3 divisions of the small intestine?
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  49. What are the 4 organs that empty into the duodenum?
    • Stomach
    • Pancreas
    • Liver
    • Gall Bladder
  50. Where is the pancreas located?
    Posterior to the stomach
  51. What are the endocrine & exocrine functions of the pancreas?
    • Endocrine: Produce Insulin & Glucagon
    • Exocrine (Digestive): Produce digestive enzymes and Sodium Bicarbonate
  52. What do digestive enzymes do?
    Chemically digest food particles
  53. What does sodium bicarbonate do?
    Neutralizes acid from the stomach
  54. Where is the liver located?
    Upper right peritoneal cavity and tapers to the midclavicular line below the diaphragm on the left side
  55. What are the functions of the liver?
    • Detoxifies wastes and drugs
    • Stores glycogen (glucose) and vitamins
    • Makes bile, which emulsifies fat
  56. Where is the gall bladder located?
    Inferior to the liver
  57. What is the function of the gall bladder?
    Stores and concentrates bile from liver
  58. What are circular folds?
    Large fold of the small intestine
  59. What is the purpose of circular folds in the small intestine?
    • Slows the passage of food
    • Increase surface area for absorption
  60. The circular folds of the small intestine are covered with __________.
  61. DEFINE: villi
    tiny, finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption.  Tiny capillaries found in the villi absorbed nutrients into the blood stream
  62. What are the divisions of the large intestine?
    • Caecum
    • Colon
    • Rectum
  63. What are the divisions of the colon?
    • Ascending
    • Transverse
    • Descending
    • Sigmoid
  64. The _________ is the beginning of the large intestine and has a worm-like extension known as the vermiform appendix attached to it.
  65. The ascending colon is lateral to the __________ psoas major muscle.
  66. The transverse colon is inferior to the ___________.
  67. The descending colon is lateral to the ___________ psoas major muscle.
  68. The sigmoid colon is located between the _______________________ and __________.
    • Descending colon
    • Rectum
  69. DEFINE: rectum
    Straight, terminal portion of the large intestine
  70. What is the primary function of the large intestine?
    Absorption of remaining H2O, salts and vitamins