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What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?
- Exocrine: have ducts and secrete products via transport ducts
- Endocrine: ductless and secrete directly into blood stream
What is the difference between the endocrine and nervous systems?
- Nervous: uses neurotransmitters, impulses are rapid, very specific, & short-lived.
- Endocrine: uses hormones, impulses slower than nervous, widespread, & longer lasting
What are the endocrine glands of the body?
- Suprarenal or Adrenal
Where is the hypothalamus located?
It is part of the diencephalon of the brain. Sits just above the pituitary gland
Where is the pituitary gland located?
in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Regulate the function of the pituitary gland
What is the function of the pituitary gland?
"master gland" controls many other glands
The pituitary has two anatomically and functionally distinct lobes. Name them.
Anterior and posterior pituitary
What hormones does the posterior pituitary make?
Vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin
What hormones does the anterior pituitary make?
- TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
- ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
- Growth Hormone
- FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Function of vasopressin?
increase H2O absorption in kidneys
Function of oxytocin?
increase contractility of uterus, mild ejaculation from mammary glands, stimulate contraction of smooth muscle in male reproductive tract
Function of TSH?
Stimulate secretion of hormones from thyroid
Function of ACTH?
stimulate cortisol secretion from adrenal cortex
Function of growth hormone?
stimulate growth of bones and soft tissues
Function of FSH?
promote growth of ovarian follicle, stimulates estrogen secretion, and stimulates sperm production
Function of LH?
stimulates ovulation, corpus luteum development, estrogen & progesterone secretion, and stimulates testosterone secretion
Function of prolactin?
promotes breast development and stimulates milk secretion. Function is uncertain in males
Where is the thyroid gland located?
anterior and inferior to the larynx
What is the function of the thyroid gland?
- increase metabolic rate
- decrease blood calcium levels by promoting calcium uptake in bone - increases osteoblast activity
Where are the parathyroid glands located?
four small glands on the posterior side of the thyroid
What is the function of the parathyroid glands?
increases blood calcium levels - increases osteoclast activity
Where are the suprarenal or adrenal glands located?
seated on the superior end of each kidney
What are the two parts of the suprarenal or adrenal glands called?
- suprarenal cortex
- suprarenal medulla
What is the cortical hormone of the adrenal gland?
- small amounts of male & female sex hormones
What is the medullary hormone of the adrenal gland?
What is the function of cortisol?
contributes to stress adaptation
What does massage do to cortisol levels?
massage lowers cortisol levels, which is good because cortisol is not good at high levels
What is the function of epinephrine?
enhances the "fight or flight" response. Essentially "adrenaline"
Where is the pancreas located?
posterior to the stomach
What two hormones does the endocrine pancreas make?
What is the function of insulin?
- lowers blood glucose levels
- "insulin is the key that lets sugar into the cell"
What is the function of glucagon?
- raises blood glucose levels
- moves glucose from cells into the blood
Where is the pineal gland located?
- It is part of diencephalon
- located in the roof of the third ventricle of brain
What hormone does the pineal gland make?
What is the function of melatonin?
regulates sleep-wake cycles or circadian rhythm
Where are the testes located?
outside the male pelvic cavity, in the scrotal sac
What hormone do the testes make?
What is the function of testosterone?
stimulates sperm production, development of secondary sexual characteristics in males, male sex drive, enhances pubertal growth spurt, responsible for closure of the epiphyseal growth plates in bones
Where are the ovaries located?
inside the female pelvic cavity
What hormones do the ovaries make?
What is the function of estrogen?
promote follicular (egg) development, secondary sex characteristics, stimulate breast and uterine growth
What is the function of progesterone?
promotes closure of the epiphyseal growth plate in bones and prepares the uterus for pregnancy
What are the three glands that have both endocrine and exocrine functions?