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  1. What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?
    • Exocrine: have ducts and secrete products via transport ducts
    • Endocrine: ductless and secrete directly into blood stream
  2. What is the difference between the endocrine and nervous systems?
    • Nervous: uses neurotransmitters, impulses are rapid, very specific, & short-lived.
    • Endocrine: uses hormones, impulses slower than nervous, widespread, & longer lasting
  3. What are the endocrine glands of the body?
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pituitary
    • Thyroid
    • Parathyroid
    • Suprarenal or Adrenal
    • Pancreas
    • Pineal
    • Testes
    • Ovary
  4. Where is the hypothalamus located?
    It is part of the diencephalon of the brain.  Sits just above the pituitary gland
  5. Where is the pituitary gland located?
    in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
  6. What is the function of the hypothalamus?
    Regulate the function of the pituitary gland
  7. What is the function of the pituitary gland?
    "master gland" controls many other glands
  8. The pituitary has two anatomically and functionally distinct lobes.  Name them.
    Anterior and posterior pituitary
  9. What hormones does the posterior pituitary make?
    Vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin
  10. What hormones does the anterior pituitary make?
    • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)
    • ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    • Growth Hormone
    • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
    • LH
    • Prolactin
  11. Function of vasopressin?
    increase H2O absorption in kidneys
  12. Function of oxytocin?
    increase contractility of uterus, mild ejaculation from mammary glands, stimulate contraction of smooth muscle in male reproductive tract
  13. Function of TSH?
    Stimulate secretion of hormones from thyroid
  14. Function of ACTH?
    stimulate cortisol secretion from adrenal cortex
  15. Function of growth hormone?
    stimulate growth of bones and soft tissues
  16. Function of FSH?
    promote growth of ovarian follicle, stimulates estrogen secretion, and stimulates sperm production
  17. Function of LH?
    stimulates ovulation, corpus luteum development, estrogen & progesterone secretion, and stimulates testosterone secretion
  18. Function of prolactin?
    promotes breast development and stimulates milk secretion.  Function is uncertain in males
  19. Where is the thyroid gland located?
    anterior and inferior to the larynx
  20. What is the function of the thyroid gland?
    • increase metabolic rate
    • decrease blood calcium levels by promoting calcium uptake in bone - increases osteoblast activity
  21. Where are the parathyroid glands located?
    four small glands on the posterior side of the thyroid
  22. What is the function of the parathyroid glands?
    increases blood calcium levels - increases osteoclast activity
  23. Where are the suprarenal or adrenal glands located?
    seated on the superior end of each kidney
  24. What are the two parts of the suprarenal or adrenal glands called?
    • suprarenal cortex
    • suprarenal medulla
  25. What is the cortical hormone of the adrenal gland?
    • cortisol
    • small amounts of male & female sex hormones
  26. What is the medullary hormone of the adrenal gland?
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
  27. What is the function of cortisol?
    contributes to stress adaptation
  28. What does massage do to cortisol levels?
    massage lowers cortisol levels, which is good because cortisol is not good at high levels
  29. What is the function of epinephrine?
    enhances the "fight or flight" response.  Essentially "adrenaline"
  30. Where is the pancreas located?
    posterior to the stomach
  31. What two hormones does the endocrine pancreas make?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  32. What is the function of insulin?
    • lowers blood glucose levels
    • "insulin is the key that lets sugar into the cell"
  33. What is the function of glucagon?
    • raises blood glucose levels
    • moves glucose from cells into the blood
  34. Where is the pineal gland located?
    • It is part of diencephalon
    • located in the roof of the third ventricle of brain
  35. What hormone does the pineal gland make?
  36. What is the function of melatonin?
    regulates sleep-wake cycles or circadian rhythm
  37. Where are the testes located?
    outside the male pelvic cavity, in the scrotal sac
  38. What hormone do the testes make?
  39. What is the function of testosterone?
    stimulates sperm production, development of secondary sexual characteristics in males, male sex drive, enhances pubertal growth spurt, responsible for closure of the epiphyseal growth plates in bones
  40. Where are the ovaries located?
    inside the female pelvic cavity
  41. What hormones do the ovaries make?
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
  42. What is the function of estrogen?
    promote follicular (egg) development, secondary sex characteristics, stimulate breast and uterine growth
  43. What is the function of progesterone?
    promotes closure of the epiphyseal growth plate in bones and prepares the uterus for pregnancy
  44. What are the three glands that have both endocrine and exocrine functions?
    • Pancreas
    • Testes
    • Ovaries
Card Set:
2014-03-13 18:09:18
A&P Manual: pgs. 417-430
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