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2014-03-13 14:09:01
A&P Manual: pgs. 61-77
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  1. What are the main components of the integumentary system?
    • Integument (skin)
    • Hair
    • Sweat & Oil Glands
    • Nails
  2. What are the 3 layers of the integument from superficial to deep?
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  3. What is the epidermis made of?
    stratified squamous epithelium
  4. What is the dermis made of?
    mostly dense irregular connective tissue (with a small amount of loose connective tissue)
  5. What is the hypodermis made of?
    mostly adipose connective tissue (with a small amount of loose connective tissue)
  6. Together the epidermis and dermis form the ______________.
  7. Together the cutis and the hypodermis for the ________________.
  8. What is another name for the hypodermis?
    tela subcutanea
  9. What are the functions of the integument?
    • barrier resisting microbial invasion
    • protective barrier that resists mechanical, chemical, osmotic, thermal, and photic damage
    • serves many biochemical functions such as the formation of vitamin D and various growth factors
    • regulates body temperature via control of local blood capillaries and through evaporative cooling from sweating
  10. Is the epidermis vascular or avascular?
  11. The epidermis has 5 layers.  Name the 2 we need to know.
    • Stratum Corneum
    • Stratum Basale
  12. What are the two basic cell types of stratum basale?
    • melanocytes
    • keratinocytes
  13. What is the function of melanocytes?
    produces melanin, which is a protective protein pigment that guards against UV light
  14. What is the function of keratinocytes?
    produces keratin, which is a protein that toughens and waterproofs the skin
  15. What is the most abundant cell in the epidermis?
  16. Which layer of the epidermis is mitotically active (dividing frequently)?
    stratum basale
  17. What is the stratum corneum made of?
    closely packed layers of dead keratinocytes
  18. Is the dermis vascular or avascular?
  19. The dermis has 2 layers.  Name them.
    • Stratum papillare
    • Stratum reticulare
  20. What is the stratum papillare?
    • top 20% of the dermis
    • contains dermal papilla
  21. What is the function of dermal papilla?
    anchor epidermis to dermis, improves sensation, increases surface are for exchange, strength, friction ridges, and provides blood supply to epidermis
  22. What are dermal papilla?
    peg-like projections that house small blood vessels and nerve endings
  23. What is the stratum reticulare?
    • dense irregular CT
    • deep 80% of the dermis
    • made of bundles of collagen fibers called reticular fibers
  24. What are cleavage lines?
    tears and stretch marks ("striae") caused by separation or less dense regions between collagen (reticular) fibers
  25. The hypodermis or tela subcutanea has 2 layers.  Name them.
    • fatty layer
    • fibrous layer
  26. What is the functional significance of the fatty layer of the hypodermis?
    padding, insulation, & energy storage
  27. What is the functional significance of the fibrous layer of the hypodermis?
    attaches to the deep fascia
  28. What is deep (muscular) fascia?
    • a continuous sheet of fibrous tissue that envelopes the body
    • located between the skin & muscles
    • surrounds muscles, muscle groups, nerves & blood vessels
  29. The developmental process that forms hair follicles and sweat glands is known as _____________.
  30. Where does invagination occur?
  31. What layer of the integument is the hair follicle located in?
  32. What is hair made of?
    dead keratinocytes (packed tighter & has more keratin than epidermis)
  33. papilla support the growth of ___________.
  34. What gives hair its color?
  35. What is the follicle?
    • a long, bag-like structure that houses & produces hair
    • epidermal invagination
    • made of stratified squamous epithelium
  36. What are the arrector pili muscles?
    small bundle of smooth muscle that attaches to the fibrous sheath of the hair follicle
  37. What is the function of the arrector pili muscles?
    muscles that cause the hair to stand up ("goose bumps")
  38. Where are arrector pili muscles located?
    attaches from the base of the hair follicle to the stratum papillare of the dermis
  39. What triggers the arrector pili muscles to contract?
    • Cold
    • Fear
    • Anger
  40. What are the 3 exocrine glands of the skin?
    • Sebaceous
    • Eccrine
    • Apocrine
  41. What is the purpose of the sebaceous glands?
    produce an oily substance called sebum that lubricates, moisturizes, helps waterproof the skin, and kills bacteria
  42. What is the purpose of the eccrine glands?
    produce a clear, odorless fluid (typically watery sweat) that has an evaporative cooling effect that helps thermoregulate the body
  43. What is the purpose of the apocrine glands?
    initially odorless and sterile but under bacterial digestion (by bacteria living on the body hairs) potent odorous compounds are generated.  They also distribute pheromones (signaling molecules)
  44. What is the most numerous gland of the skin?
  45. What is the least numerous, but largest gland of the skin?