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What are the main components of the integumentary system?
- Integument (skin)
- Sweat & Oil Glands
What are the 3 layers of the integument from superficial to deep?
What is the epidermis made of?
stratified squamous epithelium
What is the dermis made of?
mostly dense irregular connective tissue (with a small amount of loose connective tissue)
What is the hypodermis made of?
mostly adipose connective tissue (with a small amount of loose connective tissue)
Together the epidermis and dermis form the ______________.
Together the cutis and the hypodermis for the ________________.
What is another name for the hypodermis?
What are the functions of the integument?
- barrier resisting microbial invasion
- protective barrier that resists mechanical, chemical, osmotic, thermal, and photic damage
- serves many biochemical functions such as the formation of vitamin D and various growth factors
- regulates body temperature via control of local blood capillaries and through evaporative cooling from sweating
Is the epidermis vascular or avascular?
The epidermis has 5 layers. Name the 2 we need to know.
- Stratum Corneum
- Stratum Basale
What are the two basic cell types of stratum basale?
What is the function of melanocytes?
produces melanin, which is a protective protein pigment that guards against UV light
What is the function of keratinocytes?
produces keratin, which is a protein that toughens and waterproofs the skin
What is the most abundant cell in the epidermis?
Which layer of the epidermis is mitotically active (dividing frequently)?
What is the stratum corneum made of?
closely packed layers of dead keratinocytes
Is the dermis vascular or avascular?
The dermis has 2 layers. Name them.
- Stratum papillare
- Stratum reticulare
What is the stratum papillare?
- top 20% of the dermis
- contains dermal papilla
What is the function of dermal papilla?
anchor epidermis to dermis, improves sensation, increases surface are for exchange, strength, friction ridges, and provides blood supply to epidermis
What are dermal papilla?
peg-like projections that house small blood vessels and nerve endings
What is the stratum reticulare?
- dense irregular CT
- deep 80% of the dermis
- made of bundles of collagen fibers called reticular fibers
What are cleavage lines?
tears and stretch marks ("striae") caused by separation or less dense regions between collagen (reticular) fibers
The hypodermis or tela subcutanea has 2 layers. Name them.
What is the functional significance of the fatty layer of the hypodermis?
padding, insulation, & energy storage
What is the functional significance of the fibrous layer of the hypodermis?
attaches to the deep fascia
What is deep (muscular) fascia?
- a continuous sheet of fibrous tissue that envelopes the body
- located between the skin & muscles
- surrounds muscles, muscle groups, nerves & blood vessels
The developmental process that forms hair follicles and sweat glands is known as _____________.
Where does invagination occur?
What layer of the integument is the hair follicle located in?
What is hair made of?
dead keratinocytes (packed tighter & has more keratin than epidermis)
papilla support the growth of ___________.
What gives hair its color?
What is the follicle?
- a long, bag-like structure that houses & produces hair
- epidermal invagination
- made of stratified squamous epithelium
What are the arrector pili muscles?
small bundle of smooth muscle that attaches to the fibrous sheath of the hair follicle
What is the function of the arrector pili muscles?
muscles that cause the hair to stand up ("goose bumps")
Where are arrector pili muscles located?
attaches from the base of the hair follicle to the stratum papillare of the dermis
What triggers the arrector pili muscles to contract?
What are the 3 exocrine glands of the skin?
What is the purpose of the sebaceous glands?
produce an oily substance called sebum that lubricates, moisturizes, helps waterproof the skin, and kills bacteria
What is the purpose of the eccrine glands?
produce a clear, odorless fluid (typically watery sweat) that has an evaporative cooling effect that helps thermoregulate the body
What is the purpose of the apocrine glands?
initially odorless and sterile but under bacterial digestion (by bacteria living on the body hairs) potent odorous compounds are generated. They also distribute pheromones (signaling molecules)
What is the most numerous gland of the skin?
What is the least numerous, but largest gland of the skin?
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