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What does 2-4 DNP detect.
- The prescene of a carbonyl compund.
- Orange precipitate formed if carobonyl compound present.
What does Tollens' reagent detect.
- Aldehyde group
- Silver mirror forms if aldehyde group present.
What is High density Lipoprotein ? HDL
A type of lipoprotein that can remove cholesterol from the arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilisation.
What is low density lipoprotein?
- A type of lipoprotein that is responsible for carrying cholesterol from the liver to the tissues.
- Increases risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Define delocalised electrons.
Electrons shared between more than two atoms.
Why does Benzene not react with Bromine?
- Electrons are delocalised.
- Benzene has a lower electron density due to delocalised electrons.
- Benzene cannot polarise Br2 so can't react.
Why can Alkenes react with Bromine whilst Benzene can't?
- Electrons are localised, only shared between two carbon atoms.
- Higher electron density than Benzene.
- Can polarise ( induce a dipole) Br2 and react.
What forms when Phenol and sodium hydroxide react?
What forms when Phenol and Sodium react?
What forms when bromine is added to Phenol?
What can be observed when Bromine is added to phenol?
Bromine decolourises and a white precipitate forms.
Why is Phenol more reactive than Benzene?
- Lone pair of electrons occupying a p-orbital on the oxygen atom is delocalised into the ring.
- Electron density higher than Benzene.
- The benzene ring in phenol is activated.
- Can polarise ( induce a dipole) in Br2 and react.
Give four uses for Phenols.
- Resins for Paints.
What evidence is there to suggest against Kekulé's model.
- Bond lengths of Benzene are equal. Enthalpy change of hydrogenation for benzene is too low.
- Resistance to reaction.
What is the mechanism for the Nitration of Benzene?
What is the mechanism for the electrophillic subsitution of Bromine to Benzene?
What is the overall equation for the formation of the Nitronium ion?
HNO3 + H2SO4 → NO2+ + HSO4- + H2O
Give four examples of Halogen carriers.
How does the catalyst FeBr3 form the electrophile?
Br2 + FeBr3 → Br+ + FeBr4-
What are the products of base hydrolysis?
What are the products of an acid hydrolysis?
- Acid acts as a catalyst
Describe esterification with Acid anyhydrides and alcohols.
Alcohol + acid anhydride → Ester + carboxylic acid
Describe esterification with Carboxylic acids and alcohols.
Alcohol + Carboxylic acid ⇌ Ester + water
How soluble are carboxylic acids?
- Carboxylic acids are soluble in organic solvents.
- Soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding.
- As size increases solubility decreases.
Why is Methyl Benzene more reactive than Benzene?
Methyl groups tend to 'push' electrons towards the ring, increasing the electron density and therefore reactivity.
What are the conditions for esterification from carboxylic acids and alcohols?
- Heat under reflux
- conc H2SO4 catalyst.
What are the conditions for the esterification of alcohol and acid anyhydrides?
Gentle heating under reflux.
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