Transport dissolved substances, regulate pH, restrict fluid losses at injury sites, defend against toxins and pathogens, and stabilize body temperature.
What is the pH of blood?
Between 7.35 and 7.45.
How much of a person's body weight comes from blood?
How quickly does blood circulate through the body?
In one minute
What is plasma?
Fluid consisting of water, dissolved plasma proteins, and other solute.
What is hematocrit?
The equivalent average of all formed elements in the blood.
What is normal blood temperature?
38C or 100.4F
What is hemopoiesis?
The process of producing formed elements from myeloid and lymphoid stem cells.
What is fractionation?
The process of separating whole blood for clinical analysis into plasma and formed elements.
What are the three types of formed elements?
Red blood cells or erythrocytes
White blood cells or leukocytes
What is plasma made out of?
Albumins which transport substances such as fatty acids, globulins which are antibodies, and fibrinogen which form clots.
What is serum and its use?
The liquid part in a blood sample which can be used to treat snake bites and is also given to a patient who cannot make antibodies.
Where are plasma protein synthesized?
Mostly in the liver.
Why are red blood cells donut shaped?
increased SA, flexibility, and gas exchange.
How does the shape of a red blood cell effect its function?
It has a high surface to volume ratio, discs form stacks called rouleaux which assist in flow through narrow vessels, and the discs can bend and flex.
What is the average life span of a red blood cell?
About 120 days, during which it travels approximately 700 miles.
Review the chart on page 11 muffin.
What is fetal hemoglobin?
A strong form of hemoglobin found in embryos that takes oxygen from the mother's hemoglobin.
why would fetal hemoglobin production be induced in an adult?
It can be used as a therapy for sickle cell anemia.
How often are red blood cells replaced?
1 percent of circulating red blood cells were out per day which means a bout 3 million red blood cells are eliminated and then replaced every second.
What are responsible for hemoglobin conversion and recycling?
Macrophages of liver spleen and bone marrow.
What macrophage is responsible for jaundice?
Can macrophages store iron?
Yes and it is usually transported by transferring it into the liver.
What is the method that stem cells use to make sure to become red blood cells?
Study the red bone marrow cycle on page 14.
What is erythropoietin?
A peptide hormone also called ESH that controls rbc synthesis.
Study the red blood cell cycle on page 15.
What punishment did Rasputin receive for being loyal to czar Nicholas?
He was assassinated after World War one.
What is anemia?
A decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
What is dietary anemia?
A deficiency in iron, vitamin b12, or folic acid.
What is the term for a congenital lack of intrinsic factor?
what is hemorrhagic anemia?
what is hemolytic anemia?
Malaria or sickle cell anemia
What is aplastic anemia?
A bone marrow defect that requires powerful immunosuppressant drugs or organ transplants.
What is renal anemia?
Reviews the chart on page 17 to19 on blood typing.
What are white blood cells?
Also called leukocytes, white blood cells do not have hemoglobin but do have nuclei and other organelles. What blood cells defense against pathogens kama remove toxins and wastes, and attack abnormal cells.
Where are most white blood cells found?
In connective tissue proper, and the lymphatic system organs.
Review the chart on page 21 about neutrophils.
Review pages 22 to 25 on white blood cells because there's too much information to put on note cards.
What are blood platelets
Cell fragments involved in human blood clotting.
What are some functions of platelets?
release important clotting chemicals, temporarily patched damaged vessel walls, and reduce the size of a break in a vessel wall.
How and where are platelets produced?
In the bone marrow in megakaryocytes that manufacture platelets in their cytoplasm.
What is the process of clotting and the cessation of bleeding called?
What are the three phases of hemostasis?
the vascular phase, the platelet phase, and the coagulation phase.
What happens during the vascular phase of hemostasis?
Endothelial cells contract and expose the basement membrane to the bloodstream. the endothelial cells then release chemical factors ADP, tissue factors , and prostacyclin. Endothelial plasma membranes become sticky to seal off blood flow.
What happens during the platelet phase of hemostasis?
Activated platelets release clotting compounds. These compounds are adenosine diphosphate, thromboxane and serotonin, clotting factors, platelet-derived growth factor, and calcium ions.
What happens during the coagulation phase of hemostasis?
The blood actually clots with cascade reactions.
Review the drugs on page 33
What two nutriets are essential for blood clotting?