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What is Sociology?
the systematic study of human society
What is sociological perspective?
sociology's special point of view that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
What is Global Perspective?
the study of the larger world and our society's place in it
What are high-income countries?
the nations with the hgihest overall standards of living
Middle income countries?
nations with a standard living abou average for the world as a whole
nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
What are Comte's Three Stages of Society?
Theological Stage, Metaphysical Stage, Scientfic Stage
the church in the middle ages
The englightment and the ideas of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau
physics, chemistry, sociology
the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflcit and change
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racila and ethinic categories
supoort of social eqality for women and men
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and chagne
a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
the study of society based on scientific observation of social behavior
information we can verify with our senses
a logical system that develops knowledge from direct, systematic observation
a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified form
a concept whose value changes from case to case
a procedure for determining he value of a variable in a specific case
consistency in measurement
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
a relationship in which two or more variables change together
cause and effect?
a relationship in which change in one variable (independent) causes change in another (dependent)
What are the 3 Research Orientations?
positivist sociology, interpretive sociology, critical sociology
the study of society based on systematic observation of social balance
the study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world.
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change
What are the 4 Research Methods?
experiment, survey participant observation, existing sources
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
use of existing sources?
a research method in a which a researcher uses data already collected by others
What are the 10 steps in Sociological Research?
- what is your topic?
- what have others already learned?
- what, exactly, are your questions?
- what will you need to carry out research?
- are there ethical concerns?
- what method will you use?
- how will you record the data?
- what do the data tell you?
- what are your conclusions?
- how can you share what you've learned?
The Sociological Perspective.
- A. Sociology is the systematic study of human society.
- B. The sociological perspective helps us to see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals.
- C. It encourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds — to see the strange in the familiar.
Benefits of the Sociological Perspective.
- A. The sociological perspective helps us assess “common sense” ideas.
- B. The sociological perspective helps us assess both opportunities and constraints in our lives.
- C. The sociological perspective empowers us to be active participants in our society.
- D. The sociological perspective helps us to live in a diverse world.
The Importance of Global Perspective.
- A. Sociologists also strive to see issues in global perspective, defined as the study of the larger world and our society’s place in it.
- B. There are three different types of nations in the world.
- 1. The world’s high-income countries are industrialized nations in which most people have relatively high incomes
- .2. The world’s middle-income countries have limited industrialization and moderate personal income.
- 3. The world’s low-income countries have little industrialization in which most people are poor.
The Origins of Sociology.
- Three major social changes during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are important to the development of sociology.
- 1. The rise of a factory-based industrial economy.
- 2. The emergence of great cities in Europe.
- 3. Political changes.Auguste Comte believed that the major goal of sociology was to understand society as it actually operates. Comte favored positivism—a way of understanding based on science.
- A. A theory is a statement of how and why specific facts are related. The goal of sociological theory is to explain social behavior in the real world
- .B. Theories are based on theoretical paradigms, sets of assumptions that guide thinking and research.
- C. There are three major sociological paradigms:
- 1. The structural-functional paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
- 2. The social-conflict paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.
- 3. The symbolic-interaction paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
A. Concepts, variables, and measurement.
- 1. Concepts are mental constructs that represent some part of the world.
- 2. Variables are concepts whose value changes from case to case.
- 3. Measurement is the process of determining the value of a variable.
For a measurement to be useful, it must be reliable and valid.
- 1. Reliability refers to consistency in measurement.
- 2. Validity means precision in measuring exactly what one intends.
C. Correlation and Cause:
- 1. Cause and effect — change in one variable causes change in another.
- a. The independent variable is the variable that causes the change. b. The dependent variable is the variable that changes.
2. Correlation exists when two (or more) variables change together.
a. Spurious correlation is a false association between two (or more) variables caused by some other variable.
The Ideal of Objectivity:
1. Sociologists strive for objectivity, a state of personal neutrality in conducting research.
1. Max Weber, who pioneered this framework, argued that the focus of sociology is interpretation.2. The interpretive sociologist’s job is not just to observe what people do but to share in their world of meaning.
1. Karl Marx rejected the idea that society exists as a “natural” system with a fixed order.
Gender and Research:
- .Androcentricity, approaching an issue from the male perspective
- .2.Overgeneralizing, using data drawn from studying only one sex.
- 3.Gender blindness, not considering the variable of gender at all.
- 4.Double standards, not judging men and women differently.
- 5.Interference, a subject reacts to the sex of the researcher.
After reading Chapter One, students should be able to: 1. define sociology and understand the components of the sociological perspective2. explain what is meant by the global perspective for sociology3. identify four benefits of using the sociological perspective4. understand the main ideas in the major theories in sociology: structural-functional, social conflict, symbolic-interaction5. understand why the scientific approach is important in sociology and how that differs from “common sense”6. know the difference between scientific, interpretive, and critical methodical approaches You will not be required to know the different types of research methods (ex: participant observation) or the steps in sociological research. Those are basically the same as the scientific method. You should be familiar with that by now!