Chapter 11- The Senses

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  1. Five sensor receptor areas:
    • 1) Vision
    • 2) Hearing
    • 3) Smell
    • 4) Taste
    • 5) Touch
  2. Sense:
    - a level of awareness
  3. Convergence:
    - coordinated movement of both eyes that fixate on the same point
  4. Cutaneious:
    - pertaining to the skin
  5. Equilibrium:
    - a state of keeping the body in balance
  6. Gustatory:
    - the sense of taste
  7. Kinesthetic:
    - sensation of movement and the position of the body
  8. Olfactory:
    - sense of smell
  9. Refraction:
    - bending of light, heat or sound waves when traveling through different mediums
  10. Sense: Vision -
    • Function: To see
    • Organ:  eye
    • Receptor Cells: Photoreceptor (rods and cones)
  11. Sense: Auditory -
    • Function: to hear, maintain equilibrium
    • Sense: Ear
    • Receptor Cells: Mechanoreceptors (hair cells)
  12. Sense: Olfactory -
    • Function:  To smell
    • Organ: Nose
    • Receptor Cells: Olfactory receptor cells
  13. Sense: Gustatory -
    • Function: To taste
    • Organ:  Tongue
    • Receptor Cells:  Gustatory receptor cell
  14. Sense: Tactile -
    • Function: To touch
    • Organ:  skin
    • Receptor cells: Thermoreceptors, nociceptors, Meissher's corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles
  15. Sight - The Sense of Vision

    External Structures of the Eye:
    • -Orbit: hollow bony structure that houses and protects the eye
    • -conjunctive: thin mucous membrane that covers the sclera and lines the inside of the eyelid. Protects and lubricates
    • -extraocular muscles: six muscles that anchor eyeball/regulate movement
    • -Lachrymal gland: produces tears
  16. Sight - the Sense of Vision

    Internal Structures of the Eye:
    • -Cornea: transparent, covers front of eye; bends most of light that enters eye
    • -Sclera: tough, outermost layer, white part; maintains shape
    • -Choroid: middle layer, blood vessels, provides oxygen and nutrients
    • -Iris: pigmented tissue gives eye color; regulates size of pupil
    • -Lens: behind iris; ciliary muscles adjust the lens to fine tune color and sharpness
    • -Retina: innermose layer; changes image and sends to brain via optic nerve
    • -Optic Nerve: carry visual images from retina to the brain
    • -Vitreous humor: liquid inside eyeball
  17. Photoreceptors:
    Located in the retina:

    *Rods- located in peripheral (outer areas) of retina; dim light, night vision, peripheral vision

    *Cones- located in center of retina; detailed vision for reading and seeing at distance, detecting color
  18. Refractive Errors of the Eye:
    • Myopia
    • Hyperopia
    • Astigmatism
    • Presbyopia
  19. Myopia:
    Nearsightedness, eyeball is too long, image focuses in front of retina
  20. Hyperopia:
    Farsightedness, eyeball is too short, image focuses behind the retina
  21. Astigmatism:
    Cornea is incorrectly shaped causing irregular focus
  22. Presbyopia:
    Lens of the eye loses its ability to focus, can't look at objects close up, associated with aging
  23. Three areas of the Ear:
    • The outer ear
    • The middle ear
    • The inner ear
  24. The Outer Ear:
    • - Auricle or pinna, outside part of ear made of cartilage; collects sound
    • - Auditory canal, ceruminous glands produce wax; transmits sound to the tympanic membrane
  25. The Middle Ear:
    • -Tympanic membrane (ear drum); separates outer and inner ear; sound waves cause it to vibrate
    • -Ossicles; 3 irregular shaped bones: malleus, largest transfers vibrations from tympanic to incus; incus, "anvil" transfers malleus to the stapes; stapes "stirrup" smallest, transfers vibration to the cochlea
    • -Eustachian tubes: equalizes air pressure, drains secretions from middle ear
  26. The Inner Ear (the Labyrinth):
    • -Cochlea: organ of hearing; lined with cilia and filled with fluid; transmits sound to the auditory nerve
    • -Semicircular canals or Vestibular system: balance and equilibrium control
  27. How the Ear Hears: mechanical process
    • *Collection of sound
    • *Vibration
    • *Transmission, from stapes to chochlea hair cells
    • *Balance
  28. Olfaction:
    The ability to detect chemicals in the air
  29. The Olfactory Sense (Smell):
    • *Nose
    • *Olfactory Epithelium (membrane) - produces mucus; only neuron in body that can regenerate
    • *Olfactory Receptors - bipolar neurons with cilia and axon
    • *Olfactory Bulb- located within limbic system of brain; scents stimulate memories and emotions; receives/interprets info from olfactory receptors
  30. Anosmia:
    no sense of smell
  31. Phantosmia:
    olfactory hallucinations, may be symptom of Alzheimer's, Huntington's or Parkinson's Disease
  32. The Gustatory Sense (Taste):
    • *Tongue
    • *Taste Buds
    • *Taste Cells
    • - cilia stimulated, send info to brain via cranial nerve
    • *Five primary tastes:
    • 1)Sweet
    • 2)Salt
    • 3)Sour
    • 4)Bitter
    • 5)Umami
  33. The Tactile Sense (Touch):
    • *Meissner's Corpusce: upper region of dermis, senses light touch and motion
    • *Pacinian Corpuscle: egg shaped, also found in pancreas and joints; detects deep pressure
    • *Thermoreceptors: detect hot and cold
    • *Nociceptors: throughout body, detect pain and temp, pressure, stretching of tissue.
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Chapter 11- The Senses
2014-03-13 21:40:09

the senses
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