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3 substances found in blood
- 1. Proteins
- 2. Water
- 3. Other solutes
What are Albumins?
Help retain water in blood
Includes antibodies and fibrogen, and prothrombin
What is fibrinogen?
Necessary for blood clotting
What's the difference between serum and plasma?
Serum is plasma minus its clotting factors
What 2 types of connective tissue forms blood cells?
red bone marrow and lymphatic tissue
Describe a red blood cell
- 1. tough, flexible plasma membrane
- 2. caved in on both sides
- 3. no nucleus, which allows it to be filled with hemoglobin
What is aplastic anemia?
low RBCs due to destruction of bone marrow
low red blood cells due to a deficiency of B12.
What is the Buffy Coat?
thin layer of WBCs and platelets between RBCs and plasma in a blood sample. Helps screen for dehydration etc.
What are neutrophils?
granulocytes and most common WBCs called phagocytes. Protect body from invading microorganisms.
Lymphocytes are what?
Secrete antibodies that specifically act to destroy bacteria, viruses, etc.
Name two types of lymphocytes
- 1. B lymphocytes (plasma cells)-are formed in bone marrow
- 2. T lymphocytes-directly attack cancer cells.
Function of monocytes
phagocytes that are agranulocytes that are big so they can eat larger bacterial organisms and cancer cells.
Function of Esonophils
weak phagocytes offer protection against parasites and also involved with allergic reactions
Function of Basophils (and related mast cells)
secrete histamine, and produce Heprin
Difference between leukopenia and leukocytosis
- leukopenia abnormally low WBC
- Leukocytosis-abnormally high WBC. Infections and cancer
How is Hemophilia transmitted?
X-linked inherited disorder from a symptom free carrier mother to an affected son.
What is Hemophilia?
A bleeding disorder due to a failure to produce plasma proteins responsible for clotting.
Difference between a thrombus and an embolus
- thrombus-blood clot
- embolus-circulating blood clot