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2014-03-13 18:50:16
A&P Manual: pgs. 109-122
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  1. What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
    • Non-striated (smooth) muscle
    • Striated cardiac muscle
    • Striated skeletal muscle
  2. What type of muscle tissue has short, spindle shaped cells?
    Non-striated (smooth) muscle
  3. What type of muscle tissue is found in visceral organs throughout the body?
    Non-striated (smooth) muscle
  4. What type of muscle tissue can the cells divide (but only in the uterus during pregnancy)?
    Non-striated (smooth) muscle
  5. In muscle tissue the cells get ___________, but do not make more
  6. What type of muscle tissue has long, branched fibers composed of many cells stacked end to end?
    Striated cardiac muscle
  7. Which muscle tissues are involuntary?
    • Non-striated (smooth) muscle
    • Striated cardiac muscle
  8. Which type of muscle tissue is found in the heart?
    Striated cardiac muscle
  9. What types of muscle tissue are too specialized to divide?
    • Striated cardiac muscle
    • Striated skeletal muscle
  10. Which of the four basic tissues are found in muscle tissue?
    All four:

    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Epithelium
    • Nervous
  11. What type of muscle tissue is made up of long multinucleated cells?
    Striated skeletal muscle
  12. What type of muscle tissue is voluntary?
    Striated skeletal muscle
  13. What type of muscle tissue forms the powerfully contracting muscles of the musculoskeletal system?
    Striated skeletal muscle
  14. What are the three functions of muscle tissue?
    • 1. Movement
    • 2. Support and maintain posture
    • 3. Heat production
  15. Muscle cells can only ___________ on bones they can't ______________.
    • Pull
    • Push
  16. DEFINE: muscle belly
    contains the muscle cells that generate contraction
  17. DEFINE: tendons
    • connective tissue that attach muscle to bone
    • structure that concentrates the force of muscle contractions to a small area on the bone
  18. What are tendons made out of?
    Dense regular connective tissue
  19. DEFINE: origin
    • fixed end
    • less mobile boney attachment
    • usually the proximal attachment
  20. DEFINE: insertion
    • mobile end
    • more mobile boney attachment
    • usually the more distal attachment
  21. What is the cell found in skeletal muscle?
    • myocyte
    • muscle cell or fiber
  22. What are the connective tissue layers from deep to superficial that surround the muscle cells?
    • Endomysium
    • Perimysium
    • Epimysium
    • Fascia
  23. What is the endomysium?
    loose connective tissue that forms an envelope around each muscle fiber
  24. What is the perimysium?
    dense irregular connective tissue that form an envelope around a group of muscle cells.
  25. What is a group of muscle cells called?
  26. What is the Epimysium?
    dense irregular connective tissue that forms the outer wrapping around the bundles of fasciculi to form the belly of an individual muscle
  27. What is fascia?
    • dense irregular connective tissue that wraps around a region of muscles in the body.
    • separates the integument from the muscles
  28. The tendon of a muscle is continuous with the _____________, ______________, and _____________, of muscle and the _____________ of bone.
    • endomysium
    • perimysium
    • epimysium
    • periosteum
  29. What are the two different types of muscle fiber orientation?
    • Parallel fiber orientation
    • Oblique fiber orientation
  30. What are the different types of parallel fiber orientations?
    • Quadrilateral
    • Strap
    • Fusiform
  31. DEFINE: quadrilateral shaped
    • parallel fiber orientations with fiber lengths approximately equivalent to the width of the muscle
    • can range from thin, square shaped muscles to thick short muscles
  32. DEFINE: strap shaped
    muscles which have a length greater than their width, giving the appearance of a long, belt-like strap
  33. DEFINE: fusiform shaped
    • muscles with fibers which approximate a parallel orientation
    • typically have narrowed tendons of insertion and origin with a variably rounded muscle belly
  34. What are the different types of oblique fiber orientations?
    • Triangular, convergent or radial
    • Unipennate
    • Bipennate
    • Multipennate
    • Spiral fiber orientations
  35. DEFINE: triangular, convergent or radial shaped
    • tend to have the shape of a fan, wider at one end and narrower at the other
    • typically flat, sheet-like muscles
  36. DEFINE: unipennate shaped
    have short, oblique fibers arising from a central tendon but just off one side
  37. DEFINE: bipennate shaped
    have short, oblique fibers arising from a central tendon on both sides
  38. DEFINE: multipennate shaped
    complex branching form of bipennate type
  39. DEFINE: spiral fiber orientations
    muscles which have a twist to them, meaning the muscle wraps around bone or twists to gain different orientation of attachment
  40. DEFINE: myofibril
    • specialized contractile element of the muscle cell
    • made of thick & thin myofilaments (actin & myosin)
  41. A muscle cell or fiber contains _______________ myofibrils.
  42. What are the two sliding elements of the myofibril?
    Actin and Myosin
  43. DEFINE: thick filament
    • contains myosin
    • muscle protein that changes shape & grabs onto actin
  44. DEFINE: thin filament
    • contains actin
    • muscle protein with binding sites for myosin
    • is pulled over or "slides" over myosin
  45. DEFINE: troponin-tropomyosin complex
    During rest, this protein binds to actin & covers the myosin binding sites, thus preventing contraction
  46. How does calcium play a role in muscle contraction?
    calcium shifts TTC out of the way so myosin can bind to actin.
  47. DEFINE: sarcomere
    • basic functional unit of skeletal muscle
    • Z-line to Z-line
  48. Many sarcomeres stacked end to end from a _______________.
  49. To initiate muscle contraction you need a neuromuscular junction and the _______________.
    motor unit
  50. ATP is the energy source for muscle contraction and is required for:
    • 1. detaching the myosin head from actin
    • 2. removing calcium from the area
  51. Is ATP responsible for keeping a contraction going or stopping it?
  52. How long will muscle contractions continue?
    As long as calcium is present and ATP is available, the process keeps repeating