Chapter 12 - The Endocrine System

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teriann
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266359
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Chapter 12 - The Endocrine System
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2014-03-15 02:30:14
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endocrine system
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The Endocrine System
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  1. Secrete:
    - to deliver specialized substances such as hormones and enzymes into the blood, tissues, and organs
  2. Synthesize:
    - to make or produce
  3. Excrete:
    - to remove waste products from the body
  4. Homeostasis:
    - maintaining balance; adjusting to internal and external stimuli
  5. Diuretic:
    - a substance that increases the production of urine
  6. Functions of the Endocrine System:
    • * synthsize and secrete hormones into the bloodstream
    • *Maintains Homeostasis
    • *Regulates Metabolic Processes
    • *Controls Fluid Volume
  7. Glands:
    • -a group of cells that synthesize (produce) and secrete substances such as hormones and enzymes. 
    • -either endocrine or exocrine
  8. About Endocrine Glands:
    • *Endo (within) and crin/o (secrete)
    • *Endocrine glands do NOT have ducts
    • *produce and secrete hormones directly into bloodstream
    • *Hormones enter bloodstream through capillaries by process of diffusion
    • *Nine endocrine glands:
    • 1) Pituitary
    • 2) Hypothalamus
    • 3)pineal gland
    • 4)thyroid gland
    • 5)parathyroid glands
    • 6)adrenal gland
    • 7)pancreas
    • 8)testes
    • 9)ovaries
  9. Exocrine Glands:
    • *Exo (outside) crin/o (to secrete)
    • *Exocrine glands have ducts (tubes and canals)
    • *produce enzymes, breast milk, other substances
    • *connect ducts to anatomical surfaces, such as digestive organs and the skin
    • *Examples: sebaceious (oil) glands, the stomach, the liver
  10. What are hormones?
    • *chemical messengers that regulate activities of the body. 
    • *hormones send signals from one cell to another (like neurotransmitters)
  11. 3 Types of Hormones:
    • 1) Amines - simple molecules
    • 2) Proteins or peptides (most hormones) - chains of amino acids
    • 3) Steroids - fatty substances that come from cholesterol
  12. Actions of Hormones:
    • *designed to bind or connect with receptors on specific cells called target cells
    • *unlike neurotransmitters, hormones can bind to receptors on cell membrane AND enter the cell to bind with sites inside the cell
  13. The Pituitary - The Master Gland
    • *produces hormones that regulate the activites of other glands (master gland)
    • *regulated by the hypothalamus
    • *hypothalamus is a go-between for the nervous and endocrine systems
    • *pituitary located in diencephalon of the brain
    • *pituitary has two lobes: the anterior and posterior
    • *each lobe produces different hormones
  14. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary:
    • * Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • * Adrenocortotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • * Human Growth Hormone (HGC)
    • * Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH) - regulates production of estrogen and tetosterone; sperm production
    • * Luteinizing hormone (LH)- ovulation; sperm testosterone in men
    • * Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
  15. Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary:
    • *Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • * Oxytocin (pitocin)
  16. Other Endocrine Glands and Hormones:
    * 7 glands controlled by hypothalamus and pituitary glands
    *Pineal body located in brain, others throughout body
    • Pineal Body: melatonin
    • Parathyroid Gland: regulates calcium in blood
    • Thyroid: regulates metabolism
    • Adrenals: 30 hormones
    • Ovaries: estrogen and progesterone
    • Testes: testosterone
    • Pancreas: insulin and glucagon
    • Thymus: white blood cell maturity in children
  17. Negative Feedback - regulation of endocrine activity
    * the regulation of secretion levels of hormones
  18. Stages of Negative Feedback:
    • 1. Begins at the set point
    • 2. Goes beyond the set point
    • 3. Returns to the set point
  19. Negative Feedback Loop: three elements
    • * Receptor - senses change/sends signal
    • * Control Center - interprets signal/calls for action
    • * Effector - responds to action

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