What is the reference range for serum Inorganic Phophorous?
Adults 3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL
Children 4.5 - 6.5 mg/dL
What is the reference range for serum Magnesium?
1.5 - 2.3 mg/dL
0.65 - 1.05 mMol/L
What is the reference range for serum Iron?
Males 50 - 170 ug/dL
Female 30 - 160 ug/dL
What is the reference range for serum TIBC (total iron blood capacity)?
250 - 460 ug/dL
What is the reference range for Transferrin Iron Saturation?
25 - 55% (mid of about 37%)
What chemical is used for stimulating sweat in the diagnoses of Cystic Fibrosis?
What electrolytes are in great abundance within cells and will therefore affect assays if sample is hemolyzed?
Inorganic Phosphorous, Magnesium, Potassium, and Iron
How does pH change the plasma/serum potassium levels?
0.1 pH drop causes a 0.6 mMol/L increase in K+. Potassium is leaving cells as H+ goes into cells.
0.1 pH increase causes a 0.6 mMol/L decrease in K+
Explain the relationship of calcium to inorganic phosphorous (or phosphate). (5 relationships... or 6)
1. Anion phosphorous shows an inverse relationship with calcium.
2. Hyperparathyroid Disease:
Phosphate Low (or low end of normal)
3. Hypoparathyroid Disease or Renal Disease:
4. Osteolytic bone tumor (dissolving bone), Hypervitiminosis D, excessive intake of Calcium (all have calcium and phosphate):
5. Osteoporosis (dissolving bone):
Calcium Slightly High
6. Osteomalacia (geriatric ricketts) and Ricketts (deficiency of vitamin D).
Effect of protein concentration on Na and Ca:
Hyperproteinemia: Na+ will decrease to compensate for change in blood pressure. Total Ca2+ will elevate because more will be bound to the proteins.
Hypoproteinemia: Na+ will increase to compensate for resulting decrease in blood pressure. Total Ca2+ will decrease a little because there will be less proteins to bind it.
What is the Chloride Shift?
A balance of Chloride with Bicarbonate. When one decreases, the other normally increases. This is the case for a normal Anion Gap. When it does not work, that means there are abnormal anions present in significant amounts.
How do you calculate the Anion Gap and what is its normal range?
Anion Gap = Na - (Bicarb or TCO2 + Chloride)
Normal gap: 7 - 16
It should be positive except in Addison's Disease.