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What are antioxidants?
Nutrients that act to prevent oxidative damage resulting from free radical formation
5 ways free radicals can be formed with exercise
- -increased oxygen to the mitochondria during exercise
- *mitochondrial leak
-auto-oxidation of heme proteins
-nitric oxide release
Free radicals formed with exercise) nitric oxide release
Nitric oxide is a free radical that is released during exercise
Free radicals formed with exercise) auto-oxidation of heme proteins
Breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin produces free radicals
Free radicals formed with exercise) ischemic reperfusion
When tissue is re-oxygenated, it produces free radicals
4 things that free radicals cause damage to
-proteins in the cell
2 ways antioxidants function
-some vitamins donate their electrons to free radicals to stabilize them
-some minerals act as cofactors with enzymes to destroy free radicals
What are phytochemicals?
Chemical substances from plants
What is the consumption of photochemical associated with?
Decreased risk for CVD and cancer
Phytochemicals) 3 facts about Phenolic compounds
-group of varied phytochemicals
-protect against CVD
Phytochemicals) 2 most common examples of Phenolic compounds
Phytochemicals) 2 sources of Phenolic compounds
Phytochemicals)2 facts of organosulfides
-group of phytochemicals
Phytochemicals) 3 examples of organosulfides
Phytochemicals) 3 sources of organosulfides
Phytochemicals) 2 facts on lycopene
-classified as a carotenoid
-antioxidant and anticancer agents
Phytochemicals) 2 sources of lycopene
Tomatoes and tomatoes products
What can occur if there are deficiencies of antioxidant nutrients?
Can result in increased oxidative damage and may increase the risk for various diseases
Is there evidence suggesting that antioxidants can boost exercise performance?
There is no evidence that supports supplementation in antioxidants will help out athletes performance.
What is one thing we should focus on instead of supplementing with antioxidants?
To consume the recommended 5+ servings of fruits and veggies a day while eating a variety of foods
Why do female athletes report lower intakes of B-vitamins ?
- Due to their lower energy intake
- *they did a study on active men, but none of them were deficient. They think it was because tehyalready had a high energy intake thus they were able to consume enough b vitaimins
What is the overall point in B-vitamins status of active individuals?
Unless an individual is restricting energy intake or eating a diet in high refined foods, nutrient intake of Thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin appear to be adequate
Do vitamins supplements improve exercise performance?
There are no data to support improved exercise performance in individuals who supplement with vitamins and minerals as long as nutrient status was good before supplementation began
Why is an adequate number of RBCs important during exercise?
To ensure adequate oxygen delivery during exercise.
Which 5 micronutrients are important in hemoglobin synthesis and RBC production?
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation)3 facts regarding iron
-primary role in formation of myoglobin and hemoglobin
-cofactors for enzymes in the ETC
-cofactors for enzymes related to carbs and protein metabolism
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation) 2 types of iron sources
- *animal products
- **easier to absorb
- Non heme
- *plant based foods
- *harder to absorn
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation) does the iron turnover increase or decrease in active individuals?
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation) if one's iron status is poor, will their performance drop or not be affected?
It will suffer
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation) what is sports anemia?
Individuals who are increasing their exercise training or are initiating an exercise program are prone to transient changes in iron status
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation) sports anemia: if people respond to iron supplementation then...
Their low iron status was most likely due to inadequate iron and not increased plasma volume or incorporation or iron into the muscle
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation) 5 factors that may determine the degree to which exercise affects iron status
-type of sport engaged in
-intensity and duration of the sport
-adaptation to training
-effect of exercise on menstrual blood losses
Stages of iron deficiency) stage 1
Iron deficiency= iron stores are low
Stages of iron deficiency) stage 2 (2)
-iron deficiency erythropoiesis
-ability to synthesize new RBCs is decreased
Stages of iron deficiency) Stage 3 (2)
-iron deficiency anemia
-number of red cells is decreased because iron is not available
Exercise related function of nutrients involved in blood formation) Can supplementation improve performance for someone that is lacking nutrients?
It may improve performance by providing sufficient cofactors for the synthesis of hemoglobin, production of new red blood cells, and for activation of enzymes within energy metabolism pathways