bio test 2
Card Set Information
bio test 2
bio test two
Movement of molecules down a concentration gradient- requires no energy
same as diffusion but uses a carrier to transfer through
requires energy to move through the bilayer
where is cholesterol located?
In the phospholipid bi layer (adds structure)
consist of lipid bilayer and proteins
RNA and Protein
needed for photosynthesis
"powerhouse of cell", cellular respiration, forms ATP
"Post Office" modifies, packages, sends proteins
oxidation, detoxifies drugs and toxins
only in plant cells, made of cellulose
where DNA is, "command center"
stynthesis of RNA
digestion and cellular recycling
stores water and nutrients
glucose -> pyruvate, occurs in cytoplasm
(krebs) produces CO2, occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
Citric Acid Cycle
uses O2 as electron acceptor, NADH-> NAD+
uses electron carriers and proton pump to form ATP
Electron transport/oxidative phosphorilation
pyruvate to acids or alcohols, makes 2 ATP from sub. phos.
occurs in cytosol
shrink, greater solute
swell, less solute
what do enzymes do?
increase rate of reaction
what occurs in the cytosol?
fermentation and glycolysis
3 types of cytoskeleton
microfilaments-function in muscle contractions
intermediate filaments- fix organelles
Output of Cellular Respiration
30 to 32 ATP per glucose
How do larger molecules cross?
Exocytosis or phagocytosis
Long distance signaling
3 stages of cell signaling?
releases energy by breaking down complex molecules into small ones
Light reactions input and output
: light, water, ADP, NADP+
: ATP, NADHP, O2
Calvin Cycle in and out
: ATP, NADPH, CO2
: ADP, NADP+, G3P
"self feeders" convert solar energy to chemical energy
obtain organic material from other organisms
photosynthesis occurs in...
plants, alga, unicellular protists, and some bacteria
where theres chlorophyll
Where do light reactions occur?
where does the calvin cycle take place?
in the stroma
Citric Acid cycle
completes oxidation of glucose
1 glucose = 8 NADH
any process that transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP to form ATP is called