ATP and respiration
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What does ATP stand for ?
What are the advantages to ATP?
It only needs one type opf enzyme to release energy. The energy is released in small amounts so non is wasted. It provides a common energy source for many processes increasing efficiency and control of the cell
What is the energy released by ATP used for?
Contraction of muscle fibres, Active transport of molecules and Anabolic processes.
Draw the structure of ATP
Describe the three different ways of phosphorylating ADP to ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation: on mitochondrial membranes during respiration
Photophosphorylation: on thylakoid membrane during photosynthesis
Substrate level phosphorylation: in respiration where phosphate is transferred by donor molecules.
Respiration is a series of enzyme catalysed reactions which release chemical energy from organic molecules in order to synthesise ATP
What are the four main stages of respiration?
- Link Reaction
- Krebs Cycle
- Electron Transport Chain
It begins with the phosphorylation of glucose to a 6c hexose phosphate sugar using 2 ATP molecules. This is then split into two 3c sugars. These are then oxidised into pyruvic acid yeilding 2 molecule of reduced NAD and 4 ATP. Net yeild 2 ATP and 2 reduced NAD
Describe the Link Reaction
Describe the Electron Transport Chain
Reduced NAD is oxidised to NAD by passing hydrogen ions and electrons to other coenzymes. A complex of enzymes and coenzymes called Q separates electrons and hydrogen ions. The electrons are passed through a series of electron carriers which use iron
Describe Oxidative phosphorylation
energy from electron transfer during oxidation-reduction reactions enables certain carriers to transport protons across a membrane. Proton -motive force develops. Re-entry of protons through ATP-synthetase enzyme complex provides energy. ATP is synthesised
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