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Factors that is needed when documenting a crime scene:
- Note taking: WWWWW&H (FACTS ONLY)
- Photos: 1 Camera + 1 Log (FAR 2 NEAR)
- Sketching: Measurements & all objects must be included. (1 Rough sketch & 1 Final sketch)
What does REPORTS consist of?
- WHO: DATE, TIME & LOCATION
- WHY: Intro- What you are saying or telling the reader.
- Body- Tell the story
- Conclusion-Read points (NO OPINIONS)
SEARCH & SEIZURE
- Search: Once started it has to be finished.
- 4th Amendment: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
- Terry v. OHIO: Terry Frisk: (1) Has to be suspicious circumstances, (2) someone looks like a suspect named in the warrant.
- NO KNOCK= HIGH RISK
What is evidence?
- Testimonial:Info obtained through interviewing and interrogation. (EYE WITNESS, HEARSAY, CHARACTER evidence)
- Documentary: Written material, audio & videos.
- Demonstrative: mockups, scale models or places related to the crime scene.
- Physical: (ANYTHING REAL) it can be seen, smelled, touched, or tasted. & is semisolid or liquid.
What is Direct & Indirect evidence?
- Direct: FACTS
- Indirect also called CIRCUMSTANIAL: INCRIMINATE
Types of other Evidence: Trace, Prima facie, Associative, Corpus delicti, probative, material, relevant, competent evidence.
- TRACE: Small items like hair or fiber.
- PRIMA FACIE: Established by Law
- ASSOCIATIVE: Links a suspect
- CORPUS DELICTI: Establish a crime has been committed
- PROBATIVE: PROVING GUILT or INNOCENCE
- MATERIAL: Forms of substances
- RELEVANT: Applies to the matter
- COMPENTENT: Collected, identified, filed and continuously secured.
What is Integrity of evidence, Chain of evidence/Chain of study?
- INTEGRITY of EVIDENCE: ANY item included in the case must be in same condition as found.
- CHAIN of EVIDENCE/ CHAIN of STUDY: Documentation of who had the evidence and what has happened to it. Includint TIME was discovered.
What is cross contamination?
Allowing items to touch one another.
What is Class & Individual Characteristics?
- CLASS: Features that place item in a category.
- INDIVIDUAL: features that distinguish one item from another.
- FRANCIS GALTON
- LATENT:Impressions on a surface, cause by either sweat, oil, dirt, blood or other substances.
- VISIBLE: dirty or stained prints on glossy or light colored surfaces.
- PLASTIC: prints left in soft substances. Such as putty, grease, tar, butter, or soft soap.
- DATABASE: IAFIS
- WHEN LIFTING PRINTS MAKE SURE YOU TAKE PHOTOS!!!!!!!
What is Miranda Warning?
Before interrogating must read Miranda rights. Miranda v. Arizona 1966
INFORMATION AGE IS?
Knowledge and info are increasing exponentially. doubling every 2.5 years
Interview v. Interrogation
- Interview is to gather information.
- Interrogation is questioning suspects about involvement in a crime.
What is repetition?
How to restate a question multiple times.
What is field identification?
On the scene identification of a suspect by a witness or victim.
The types of profiling
- Psychological criminal: attempts to identify a persons mental, emotional and psychological characteristics.
- Geographic: Identifies suspects who commits crimes in different locations.
- Racial: when officers singles out and focuses on someone based on race.
What is pretextual traffic stops?
Stopping vehicles when the officers intent wasnt the real reason for the stop
What is the types of surveillance?
- Stationary: When a suspect comes to a location where stolen goods are to be dropped
- Moving: almost always people. referred to as a tail.
What is entrapment?
The concept and planning of a offense by an officer
What is raid?
planned, organized operation based on the element of a surprise.
What is arrest?
The taking of a person into custody for a crime that was committed or to answer questions
What is reasonable force & Excessive force?
- REASONABLE: the amount of force use by the PO compared to the amount of force an individual would expect.
- EXCESSIVE: More than ordinary force, going above and beyond
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